Ch01.pt1 - Computer System

Chapter 1
To explain the definition of computer architecture
To discuss the history of computers
To describe the von-neumann machine architecture
To discuss how to measure the quality of a computer
architecture and the factors that influence the success of a
computer architecture
• To introduce the concept of computer as a hierarchical
system using structure and functions
• To describe the functions of each component in a computer
Organization and architecture
• Architecture -- refers to those attributes of a system visible
to a programmer or those attributes that have a direct
impact on the logical execution of a program.
- instruction set, number of bits used for data
representation, I/O mechanism, addressing technique.
• Organization – refers to the operational unit and their
interconnections that realize the architectural specification
-- control signal, interface to peripherals, memory
Computer Architecture
Computer Architecture
Machine Organization
Hardware components
Logic Designer’s View
Instruction set design
Computer Interface
What is a computer?
• A computer is a tool for solving problems
(ex: perform arithmetic calculations)
• Requirements of a computer
– process, store, moves, control
• 4 main functions performed by a computer
– accepts ->process-> stores->produces
Computer Architecture
• Hayes: “The study of the structure,
behavior and design of computers”
• Abd-Alla: “The design of the system
specification at a general or subsystem
• Hennessy and Patterson: “The interface
between the hardware and the lowest level
• :. the design of the computer at the
hardware or software interface.
Structure and function
• Structure – The way in which the components relate to
each other. E.g. connection between ALU and control
unit, connection between Instruction register and
instruction decoder.
• Function – The operation of each individual component
as part of structure. E.g. How the ALU, Instruction
register and instruction decoder work.
These are the basic functions that a computer can perform.
- Data processing
- Data storage
- Data movement
- Control
• Process data – data can be a variety of forms, and the
range of processing requirements is broad. There are only a
few fundamental methods of data processing ( refer ALU ).
• Store data – computer must temporarily store at least those
pieces of data that are being worked on at any given
moment at least a short-term data storage function
(temporary register) and also long-term data storage
function (store File).
• Move data – comp must be able to move data between
itself and outside world. Device directly connected to
computer is called peripheral. If data are moved over longer
distances, the process is known data communication.
• Control – Control of three function above, and given by
individuals who provides the computer with instruction.
Figure below depicts the four possible types of operations.
There are four main components in a computer structure:
- Central processing unit(CPU) – controls the operation
of the computer and performs its data processing
- Main memory – stores data
- I/O – moves data between the computer and its external
- System interconnection – some mechanism that
provides for communication among CPU, main memory
and I/O.
Traditionally a computer consist of single CPU, but in
recent years, there has been increasing use of multiple
processors in single computer.
The computer: Top-Level structure
The central processing unit
Control unit – controls the
operation of the CPU and
hence the computer.
ALU – perform data processing
Register – provides storage
internal to CPU
CPU interconnection –
mechanism provides
communication among the
control unit, ALU and register.
Computer Structure
• Level one: The computer is device that can
communicate with the outside world, and store and
manipulate data.
– The box, which can connect to networks (communication)
and peripherals (I/O)
– Software: operating system and applications
Computer Structure
• Level two: The computer has four component parts,
CPU (Central Processing Unit)
Main Memory (RAM: Random Access Memory)
I/O (Input/Output)
System Interconnection (buses)
Computer Structure
• Level three: The CPU has four components
Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
Floating Point Unit (FPU)
Registers (Data, Instruction, Stack, Integer, Floating Point)
Control Unit
Internal CPU connections (wires)
Computer Structure
• Level four: The control unit has three internal
– Sequencing logic
– Control unit registers and decoders
– Control memory
Any Question !!!!!!
Quiz !!!
Sketch the internal connection of a Simple CPU
and explain in detail how it works
What are the differences between single core
technology and multi core technology.
Give 10 advantages of 8 bit processor and 64
bit processor.