CHAPTER 2 SECTION 1 Note Taking Study Guide, p. 45 European Exploration Reasons to Explore Control trade Gain direct access to Asia Gain wealth Portugal Leads Rounds southern tip of Africa Finds a sea route to India Creates a vast trading empire Columbus Sails West Finds route to previously unknown continents Trading and exploration rights divided between Portugal and Spain Spurs other nations to explore On-Level Summary (p. 46 Reading Check It was a line set by the pope, which divided the non-European world between the Spanish and the Portuguese. Vocabulary Strategy Authority means "the power to give commands and enforce obedience." Reading Skill Cause: Europeans wanted to gain direct access to Asia's trade goods. Effect: Students should identify any two of the following: Portuguese explorers made it around the southern tip of Africa, the Cape of Good Hope. Following the same route, Vasco da Gama was able to cross the Indian Ocean to reach the spice port of Calicut. The Portuguese created a vast trading empire by seizing ports around the Indian Ocean. Review Questions 1. They wanted to find a direct route to Asian trade goods. 2. He believed that Africa was the source of the riches the Muslim traders controlled. He also hoped to find an easier way to reach Asia by sailing down its coast. CHAPTER 2 SECTION 2 Note Taking Study Guide p. 47 Effects of European Exploration on Africa European Footholds Portuguese establish forts and trading posts. Portuguese attack coastal cities of East Africa. Portuguese expel the Arabs and take over East African trade network. Slave Trade European involvement encourages broader Atlantic slave trade. Europeans rely on African rulers and traders to seize captives and bring them to trading posts and forts. Some African leaders, such as Affonso I, try to stop the slave trade. New African States Asante kingdom emerges in the area of present-day Ghana. Oyo empire arises from successive waves of settlement by Yoruba people. Summary p. 48 Reading Check They bought slaves for cheap labor on their plantations. Vocabulary Strategy Unified means "combined into one." Reading Skill Some small African states disappeared forever because of the loss of countless numbers of young Africans. At the same time, there arose new states whose way of life depended on the slave trade. Review Questions 1. They built small forts and trading posts. 2. the Dutch; Boer farmers CHAPTER 2 SECTION 3 Note Taking Study Guide, p. 49 European Exploration in South and Southeast Asia Portugal Builds a rim of trading outposts and controls spice trade between Europe and Asia Makes efforts to convert people to Christianity Netherlands Establishes Cape Town and gains a secure foothold in region Forms the powerful Dutch East India Company Spain Takes over the Philippines, a key link to its empire Converts the Filipinos to Christianity Britain Establishes the British East India Company Drives the French from India and dominates there Summary p. 50 Reading Check It was a Dutch trading company founded in 1602 by a group of wealthy Dutch merchants; it had sovereign powers and helped the Netherlands dominate trade in Asia. Vocabulary Strategy Strategic means "important to carrying out a plan of action." Reading Skill The Mughal empire was larger, richer, and more powerful than any kingdom in Europe, so Mughal emperors saw no threat in granting trading rights to Europeans. As the empire weakened, however, the European traders fought for power, resulting in the British East India Company's domination of most of India. Review Questions 1. They first gained footholds in southern India by making promises of aid to local princes. Then they seized Goa and Malacca. With military and merchant outposts in these distant areas, they built their trading empire and controlled the spice trade. 2. The strategic settlement of Cape Town gave the Dutch a secure foothold in the region. But the formation of the Dutch East India Company, with its full sovereign powers, led to their dominating trade in the region. CHAPTER 2 SECTION 4 Note Taking Study Guide, p. 51 European Contacts in East Asia China New crops from the Americas boost farm output. The Qing maintain the Ming policy of restricting foreign traders. Qianlong rejects diplomatic trade negotiations with Britain. Korea Korea restricts contact with the outside world. Confucianism influences Koreans' view of merchants. Koreans imprison or kill shipwrecked Europeans. Japan Japanese at first welcome Westerners and adopt Western firearms. Some Japanese adopt Christian faith. The Tokugawa shogunate expels foreign missionaries. Summary p. 52 Reading Check the Manchus, who ruled Manchuria and started the Qing dynasty Vocabulary Strategy Allegiance means "loyalty or devotion to a cause or person." Reading Skill In response to the invasions, the Koreans isolated themselves. They excluded all foreigners except the Chinese and a few Japanese. Korea became known in the West as the "Hermit Kingdom." Review Questions 1. because the European textiles and metalwork that they had to offer in exchange were inferior to Chinese products; 2. They were impressed with the brilliant Jesuit priest Matteo Ricci, and they welcomed learning about Renaissance Europe.