Bellringer 1. What characteristics define the ancient river valley civilizations? 2. Do the Olmec & Chavin fit these characteristics? How? How not? – Chronology? Location? Government? Economy? Social structures? Religion? 3. Why are they similar? Different? Olmec • 1200-400 BCE Chavin Comparing River Valley Civilizations History is about questions and thinking critically to answer those questions! India & China? – Less is known due to gaps in scholarship • India – Harappa, cities – Traded with Mesopotamia & Central Asia • China – Xia & others before Shang? – Most isolated but still traded – Rigidly patriarchal • Only sons capable of venerating ancestors • Lacking a male heir was regarded as a crime against the ancestors Mesopotamia & Egypt • Primary source documents Document Questions ♦What is the basis of the a king’s legitimacy in Mesopotamia? ♥How would you characterize Mesopotamia religion and afterlife? ♣What is the relationship between the gods and humankind? ♠What are the principles of justice in Mesopotamia according to the code? Share Readings 1. Main Idea; Thought-provoking Quote; Issue in Document/Question 2. Read “The Occupations of Old Egypt” and accompanying “Be a Scribe.” – What might historians learn from this text about the jobs and social structure of Egypt? Comparisons Group Analysis As a group, • Analyze the similarities and differences between Mesopotamia and Egypt. – Consider social issues, economies, governments, purpose of literature & architecture, etc Mesopotamia Fertile Crescent Cuneiform Urbanization “The urbanization process as such in Mesopotamia is totally beyond our reach . . . . It is true that cities rose here and there around royal residences, trading settlements (ports of trade), wells, and certain sanctuaries, but nowhere do we find such an agglomeration of urban settlements as in southern Babylonia—and so early in history at that. In this dark and remote period originated the basic attitude of Mesopotamian civilization toward the city as a social phenomenon. This attitude is one of unconditional acceptance of the city as the one and only communal organization. . . .” City-States Ziggurats Hammurabi Women Trade Egypt Nile River Valley Pyramids Afterlife Women Trade Closure Write an “AP” thesis statement in response to: Analyze the similarities and differences in ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt.