AP Rev Power Point - Plain Local Schools

AP Review
Review your way to a 5
Rogerian term for
• Unconditional positive regard
When you forget how or
when you obtained the
• You recall a detail or event but can not
recall where you heard it or saw it
• Source amnesia
You have amnesia, you
can’t remember the old
memories or time
surrounding the traumatic
event that caused the
• Retrograde amnesia
The tendency to
underestimate the extent
to which our judgments
are erroneous
• Overconfidence bias
Problem-solving strategies
directed at one sloution
• Convergent thinking
The tendency to search for
information that supports
our preconceptions and
ignores information that
refutes our ideas
• Conformation bias
In an experiment, the one
a researcher would
• Dependent Variable
A mental shortcut, often
leading to an error in decision
making, a new situation is
judged by how well it
matches a stereotypical
model or prototype
• Representative heuristic
Describes exactly what
the variables are and how
they are measured within
the context of your study
• Operational definition
Involves reasoning from
the specific to the general
• Inductive reasoning
Forming concepts about all
members of a group based
upon a few members
• Inductive reasoning, yes again!
Part of the brain stem
responsible for
wakefulness, arousal, and
This machine can record
sleep waves
• Reticular formation
This machine can record
sleep waves
• EEG - electroencephalograms
The underlying meaning of
a dream is called this
• Latent content
After passing through
stages 1 to 4, you pass
back through stages 3,2,1:
then you hit this stage
• REM – you begin your 1st REM
cycle about 90 minutes after
falling asleep
Each of your later REM stages gets longer, and the final one may last
up to an hour. Your heart rate and breathing quickens.
You can have intense dreams during REM sleep, since your brain is
more active.
Babies can spend up to 50% of their sleep in the REM stage, compared
to only about 20% for adults.
We experience
Alpha waves
when we are
Nightmares occur
during this stage of
•REM – they are just unpleasant
Sleepwalking, or
somnambulism, night
terrors and bedwetting
occur in this stage
•Stage 4
Depress the central
nervous system, relieve
pain, induce feelings of
• Narcotics
The number of responses
changes randomly before
reinforcement occurs
• Variable Ratio
Intense dislike and
avoidance of a food
because of a sickening
classical conditioning
• (Conditioned) Taste Aversion
An animal trained via
operant conditoining
experiences this when the
conditioned response
drifts back to the
organisms natural behavior
• Instinctive Drift
An antipsychotic is used to
treat ___________disorders
and can also be called
• Schizophrenia Disorders & Neuroleptic
For treatment of Bipolar
this has been widely used
to stabilize mood alone or
along with antidepressants
• Lithium
This is the daily pattern of
bodily changes that cycle
approximately every 24
hours, such as sleep/wake
• Circadian rhythm
Modification of our
behavior at another
person’s request
• Compliance
The cerebral cortex that
covers part of the frontal
• Prefrontal cortex
• Right behind the forehead, in charge of abstract
thinking and thought analysis, it is also responsible
for regulating behavior. This includes mediating
conflicting thoughts, making choices between right
and wrong, and predicting the probable outcomes of
actions or events.
Selye’s 3 stage process
that describes our
biological reaction to
sustained unrelenting
• alarm, resistance, exhaustion
Part of the elaboration
likelihood model, changes
in our attitude due thinking
critically about an
argument (like checking
facts, data)
• Central route of persuasion
Neurotransmitter that
causes muscle
• Acetylcholine
Minimum change between
any two similar stimulus
that a person can notice
50% of the time
• Difference threshold
These photoreceptors in
the retina are for detecting
• CONES – C for color
This allows for us to see
depth perception, it is a
result of the difference in
the right and left retinal
• Retinal disparity
The tendency of
individuals to put less
effort into group projects
• Social loafing
Name this type of image
• Figure ground
Individual neurons in the
occipital lobe that respond
to specific features of a
visual stimulus (like lines
and curves)
• Feature detectors
The critical part of an
experiment when the
subjects are told about the
true intentions of the
research study they just
participated in
• Debriefing
• Debriefing is the procedure that is conducted in psychological
research with human subjects after an experiment or study has
been concluded. It involves a structured or semi structured
interview between the researcher and the subjects whereby all
elements of the study are discussed in detail.
• The APA says you have to do this to
comply with ethical research guidelines
Tendency to apply
previously successful
solutions as opposed to
new or different strategies,
which may or may not
hinder problem solving
• Mental Set
Memory concerned with
remembering to perform a
planned act in the future–
basically you are
remembering to remember
• Prospective memory
Numerical measures are used to
tell about features of a set of
data. There are a number of items
that belong in this portion of
statistics, such as:
mean, median, mode
• Descriptive stats