P.R.A.I.S.E ACTIVITY The American Experience DIRECTIONS You will be assigned a literary period from American Literature. Using the American Literature text book provided for you, you and your group will have to gather as much information as you can and then organize it onto a poster provided for you. Every category needs to be presented in a clear and logical format. Please be creative and use visuals to assist in your presentation. P OLITICAL/HISTORICAL What was the governmental structure? Who was president/leader (if applicable)? What were the major political conflicts they faced? What key historical events influenced this time period? R ELIGION What were the major religious beliefs during this time period? How did this affect the country and its people? Did the religious beliefs of the time create any conflicts with the society? A ESTHETIC/ARTS What was the art of the period like? How was the writing/poetry/literature unique to this period? What was the literary movement (if applicable) called and what did it entail? Who were the major literary figures (authors) of this time period? I NTELLECTUAL Who were the major intellectual figures of this time? What did they study? What were their philosophies? What did the schooling of this time period look like? S OCIAL What did people do for fun during this time? What sort of entertainment was available? Were there any interesting events or procedures that stood out? E CONOMIC What state of finance was America in at this time? What were the major industries? How did most people survive? NATIVE AMERICANS P.R.A.I.S.E. ASSIGNMENT EXAMPLE P OLITICAL/HISTORICAL Tribes & Clans—Highest level. Within each tribe were smaller groups called clans: shared a common ancestor & were considered related to one another; had its own symbol/spirit that gave the clan its name. Chiefs—Leaders/men elected by the people; generally didn’t have total power; were respected men who provided advice that the tribe/clan followed. Civil leader—Guided tribe during times of peace & War leader—Took over during times of war. Villages and Families—Played a more important role in the daily lives of the people. Large extended families often lived together. Rules and Punishment—Varied from tribe to tribe, but generally didn’t involve physical punishment; usually shamed in front of the tribe. Extreme cases: expulsion. War—Typically caused by a neighboring tribe killing a tribal member or theft. Often captives were used to replace the members the tribe had lost or used for religious sacrifices. War chief would lead small parties to ambush rival Indians and take captives. This also provided them the opportunity to avoid large battles and a quick retreat if necessary. 1570 – The Iroquois Confederacy was established to stop warfare among the Five Nations (Timeline 6). Great Binding Law or Great Law of Peace (now the Iroquois Constitution) “established a framework of laws and practices” (40). R ELIGION Nearly all tribes’ religions included a creation myth passed down orally from one generation to the next. Most worshipped an all-powerful, all-knowing creator or “Master Spirit” and lesser supernatural entities. Most believed in immortality of the soul and in an afterlife. A ESTHETIC/ARTS Myths, legends, & songs The poets tell their community’s history and honor its poets. Many of the works include people communicating with mountains and rivers or people talking with, and even turning into, animals (8). Works include The Earth on Turtle’s Back, The Navajo Origin Legend, & When Grizzlies Walked Upright I NTELLECTUAL “Schooling”: Boys were taught how to hunt & do men's chores. Young girls learned to make baskets, work the fields, and cook. Children learned of the history & moral rules of the tribe from stories told by elders. These stories held taught the children how they were expected to behave. Men were skilled in agriculture, eventually teaching European settlers how to plant and harvest crops such as maize and squash, and in woodworking, teaching settlers about bark canoes. S OCIAL Music, hand-clapping or playing musical instruments & dancing was enjoyed most evenings. The main instruments used were rattles made of gourds and drums covered with animal skin. The "welcome" dance: a person danced a solo in the center of a circle of people who were seated. As each person got up to take his or her turn at dancing, the previous person sat down in the circle. When the last person was finished dancing, then all of the dancers got up and danced in a ring. Storytelling—Favorite pastime. storytellers were greatly revered for their abundant knowledge. The stories were records of their culture and of mythical tales that conveyed moral truths; taught tribe members how to survive and uphold beliefs and traditions. E CONOMIC The Native American tribes were primarily self-sufficient. Their economy was based on their environment. They worked for what they needed to survive (hunting, fishing, farming, gathering). Similarly, Native Americans used the resources found near their environment. (For example, a tribe would use a buffalo for food, clothing, shelter, blankets, weapons, etc.) They bartered (traded) goods produced in their area with other tribes from other areas. (For example, a tribe from the south may barter some agriculture for fur from a tribe near the Canadian border.) A DDITIONAL SOURCES "Chesapeake Bay - Native Americans - The Mariners' Museum."Chesapeake Bay - Native Americans - The Mariners' Museum. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Aug. 2015. "Native American Warfare." AMIN210 -. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Aug. 2015. Nelson, Ken. " Native Americans for Kids: Social Structure ." Ducksters. Technological Solutions, Inc. (TSI), Aug. 2015. Web.