Scalp ►Extension and Layers. ►Muscles. ►Nerve supply (sensory, motor). ►Arterial supply. ►Venous Drainage. ►Lymph drainage. ►Clinical points. Extension and layers It covers the vault of the skull and it extends: 1. Anteriorly: to the eyebrows. 2. Posteriorly: to the superior nuchal lines. 3. Laterally: to the temporal lines. It has five layers: Skin, Connective tissue, Aponeurosis, Loose areolar tissue and Pericranium. 1. Skin Thick. Hair bearing. Contains numerous sebaceous glands. 2. Connective tissue Under the skin and connecting it to the underlying aponeurosis forming a thick one moving unit. Fibro-fatty, the fat is tightly backed inside fibrous loculi. Numerous arteries and veins are located in this layer. 3. Epicranial aponeurosis Thin tendinous sheet, uniting the two bellies of occipito-frontalis muscle. Laterally, it is attached to the temporal fascia. 4. Loose areolar tissue Occupies the subaponeurotic space. Loosely connects the superficial 3 layers to the 5th one (pericranium). Contains small vessels, emissary and diploic veins. 5. Pericranium The periosteum covering the outer surface of the skull vault. It is limited to the edges of the bone and it is connected with the endocranium at the sutural joints. Muscles of the scalp Occipito-frontalis Origin: occipital belly from the highest nuchal line. Frontal belly from the skin and superficial fascia of the eyebrows. Insertion: both bellies are inserted into the epicranial aponeurosis. Nerve supply: occipital belly from posterior auricular branch of facial nerve and frontal belly from temporal branch of facial nerve. Action: moves the superficial 3 layers together, and raises the eyebrows Nerve Supply of Scalp 1. 2. 3. 4. Sensory nerves of the anterior half are branches of trigeminal nerve: Supratrochlear n. (ophthalmic n.). Supraorbital n. (ophthalmic n.). Zygomatico-temporal n. (maxillary n.). Auriculo-temporal n. (mandibular n.). Temporal branch of facial nerve is the motor nerve of the muscles of anterior half of the scalp. Nerve Supply of Scalp 1. 2. 3. 4. Sensory nerves of the posterior half are branches of cervical spinal nerves: Greater occipital nerve (dorsal ramus of 2nd cervical nerve). Lesser occipital nerve (C2 from cervical plexus). Third occipital nerve (dorsal ramus of 3rd cervical nerve. Great auricular nerve (C2,3 from cervical plexus). Posterior auricular branch of facial nerve is the motor nerve of the muscles of posterior half of the scalp.