Principle of Training Powerpoint

Bell Ringer
• Turn in all completed assigned work form last class (article questions,
muscular fitness outline)
• Answer the Below Review Questions on a Piece of Paper:
How are muscular strength and muscular endurance different?
– Strength = maximum force and Endurance = Repeat a movement or hold a position
What is an example of a cardiovascular endurance exercise?
– Running, biking, swimming, basketball, soccer
What 3 things is a physically fit person said to be able to do?
– Carry out daily tasks without excess fatigue, handle emergency situations and have
sufficient energy to participate in leisure activities
What is an example, from your physical education warm-up, of isometric
– Plank, Side plank, Wall Sit
What is an example, from your physical education warm-up, of flexibility
– Frankensteins, single leg toe touches, 45 degree lunges, butt kickers, high knees, heel
What is an example, from your physical education warm-up, of isotonic
– Push-ups, side crunches, vertical squat explosions, box squats
Principles of Training
Creating a Muscular Fitness Workout Plan
How to Get the Most Out of Working Out
• Content Objective: The students will be able to identify the
principles of training on their notes outline in order to utilize the
principles later when they create their workout plan for their midterm project.
The Three Principles of Training
1. The principle of muscle overload
2. The principle of progression
3. The principle of specificity
The Principle of Overload
• In order for a muscle to increase in strength, the workload which it
is exposed during exercise must be increased beyond what it
normally experiences.
– Muscles adapt to increased workloads by becoming larger and stronger and
by developing greater endurance.
– The weight should not be so severe that your body is unable to adjust
F.I.T.T. Acronym
• F = Frequency
• I = Intensity
• T = Time
• T = Type
The F.I.T.T. acronym is used to accomplish the principle
of overload.
F = Frequency
• What does the word frequency mean?
– How would this relate to fitness or a
workout routine?
• Definition: How often you exercise.
• Frequency Guidelines for a Healthy
– Cardiovascular – Moderate exercise 5 days
a week or vigorous cardio 3 days a week
– Strength Training – 2 to 3 non-consecutive
days of the week
– Flexibility – Each time you exercise as part
of the warm-up and the cool-down
I = Intensity
• What does the word intensity
• How would this relate to fitness
and/or a workout plan?
• Definition – How hard you work
during exercise
• Intensity Guidelines for a Healthy
– Cardio – Work within your target
heart rate zone (will learn in a later
class how to determine)
– Strength – The exercises, amount of
weight, number of sets, number of
reps determine your workouts
intensity. Per exercise you should
do 1-3 sets of 8-16 reps.
– Flexibility – Increase the range of
motion at the joints
T = Time
• What does time refer to in
terms of fitness?
• Definition – How long you
• Time Guidelines for a Health
– Cardiovascular – 30-60 minutes of
cardio with the length dependent
upon the intensity
– Strength – Depends on the type of
workout. About an hour
Relationship between Intensity and Time
• **As the intensity of an activity increases the time (duration) will
typically decrease**
• For example if you are running on the treadmill at 10 minute per
mile pace (a slight jog) you probably feel more comfortable and
will run for longer say 60 minutes
– If you decide to increase the tempo to a 7 minute per mile pace (a run) you
will probably feel tired quicker and therefore decrease the amount of time
you run for to say 30 minutes.
T = Type
• What does type refer to in terms of
• Definition – The kind of activity you
are doing.
• Type Guidelines for a Health
– Cardiovascular – Any activity that gets
your heart rate up
– Examples: Swimming, running, cycling,
sports, etc.
– Strength – Any exercise when you are
using some type of resistance
– Examples: Bands, dumbbells, stability ball,
body weight, etc.
– Flexibility – Any exercise that increases
the range of motion at the joint
– Examples: Stretch, yoga, resistance
bands, Pilates, gymnastics, etc.
Purpose of the F.I.T.T. Acronym…
• The F.I.T.T. acronym is used once you set fitness goals for
yourself in order to provide you with workout guidelines for
achieving your fitness goal.
• It outlines how to manipulate your program to get better results,
change your workouts to avoid boredom, and reduce overuse
injuries and plateaus.
Overview of the F.I.T.T. Acronym
• Frequency: Increasing the number of times you train per week. For
example currently running 2 times a week increase to running 3
times a week.
• Intensity: Increasing the difficulty of the exercise you do. For
example running at 12 min per mile instead of 10 min per mile or
increasing the weight you are squatting with.
• Time: Increasing the length of time that you are training for each
session. For example cycling for 45 minutes instead of 30.
• Type: Increase the difficulty of the training you are doing. For
example progress from walking to running.
The Principles of Muscle Overload Cont.
• Full Range of Motion – The
overload must be applied
throughout the full range of
motion. For example starting
stretched past the relaxed
position and ending in a fully
contracted position.
• Repetition – When an exercise
has progressed through a
complete range of motion and
back to the beginning. For
example one bicep curl is one
– One-Repetition Maximum (1-RM) –
One repetition performed against
the maximum possible resistance.
• Set – A series of repetition
without a rest. For example 10
bicep curls in a row and then
you rest for a minute = 1 set
• Muscle Failure: The inability of
a person to do another correct
repetition in a set.
**Minimum resistance needed to
obtain strength gains = 50% of the
One-Rep Maximum or completing
8-12 reps of each exercise.
The Principle of Progression
• Your body adapts to lifting the same amount of weight therefore
you need to…
– Gradually increase the level of exercise in order to sustain improvement in
physical fitness.
• When you can correctly do the upper limit of repetitions (usually
12 reps) for each of three set without muscle failure, you need to
increase your weight.
The Principle of Specificity
• You must overload the specific muscle(s) you want to strengthen
– The muscle(s) you want to strengthen are the ones you feel contract and
become tense during the movement/exercise
– For example: If you want to increase leg strength you must do leg exercises
such as squats, lunges, calf raises, leg press, etc.