Bell Ringer • Turn in all completed assigned work form last class (article questions, muscular fitness outline) • Answer the Below Review Questions on a Piece of Paper: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. How are muscular strength and muscular endurance different? – Strength = maximum force and Endurance = Repeat a movement or hold a position What is an example of a cardiovascular endurance exercise? – Running, biking, swimming, basketball, soccer What 3 things is a physically fit person said to be able to do? – Carry out daily tasks without excess fatigue, handle emergency situations and have sufficient energy to participate in leisure activities What is an example, from your physical education warm-up, of isometric exercise? – Plank, Side plank, Wall Sit What is an example, from your physical education warm-up, of flexibility – Frankensteins, single leg toe touches, 45 degree lunges, butt kickers, high knees, heel walks What is an example, from your physical education warm-up, of isotonic exercise? – Push-ups, side crunches, vertical squat explosions, box squats Principles of Training Creating a Muscular Fitness Workout Plan How to Get the Most Out of Working Out Objectives • Content Objective: The students will be able to identify the principles of training on their notes outline in order to utilize the principles later when they create their workout plan for their midterm project. The Three Principles of Training 1. The principle of muscle overload 2. The principle of progression 3. The principle of specificity 1. The Principle of Overload • In order for a muscle to increase in strength, the workload which it is exposed during exercise must be increased beyond what it normally experiences. – Muscles adapt to increased workloads by becoming larger and stronger and by developing greater endurance. – The weight should not be so severe that your body is unable to adjust F.I.T.T. Acronym • F = Frequency • I = Intensity • T = Time • T = Type The F.I.T.T. acronym is used to accomplish the principle of overload. F = Frequency • What does the word frequency mean? – How would this relate to fitness or a workout routine? • Definition: How often you exercise. • Frequency Guidelines for a Healthy Lifestyle: – Cardiovascular – Moderate exercise 5 days a week or vigorous cardio 3 days a week – Strength Training – 2 to 3 non-consecutive days of the week – Flexibility – Each time you exercise as part of the warm-up and the cool-down I = Intensity • What does the word intensity mean? • How would this relate to fitness and/or a workout plan? • Definition – How hard you work during exercise • Intensity Guidelines for a Healthy Lifestyle – Cardio – Work within your target heart rate zone (will learn in a later class how to determine) – Strength – The exercises, amount of weight, number of sets, number of reps determine your workouts intensity. Per exercise you should do 1-3 sets of 8-16 reps. – Flexibility – Increase the range of motion at the joints T = Time • What does time refer to in terms of fitness? • Definition – How long you exercise • Time Guidelines for a Health Lifestyle: – Cardiovascular – 30-60 minutes of cardio with the length dependent upon the intensity – Strength – Depends on the type of workout. About an hour Relationship between Intensity and Time • **As the intensity of an activity increases the time (duration) will typically decrease** • For example if you are running on the treadmill at 10 minute per mile pace (a slight jog) you probably feel more comfortable and will run for longer say 60 minutes – If you decide to increase the tempo to a 7 minute per mile pace (a run) you will probably feel tired quicker and therefore decrease the amount of time you run for to say 30 minutes. T = Type • What does type refer to in terms of fitness? • Definition – The kind of activity you are doing. • Type Guidelines for a Health Lifestyle: – Cardiovascular – Any activity that gets your heart rate up – Examples: Swimming, running, cycling, sports, etc. – Strength – Any exercise when you are using some type of resistance – Examples: Bands, dumbbells, stability ball, body weight, etc. – Flexibility – Any exercise that increases the range of motion at the joint – Examples: Stretch, yoga, resistance bands, Pilates, gymnastics, etc. Purpose of the F.I.T.T. Acronym… • The F.I.T.T. acronym is used once you set fitness goals for yourself in order to provide you with workout guidelines for achieving your fitness goal. • It outlines how to manipulate your program to get better results, change your workouts to avoid boredom, and reduce overuse injuries and plateaus. Overview of the F.I.T.T. Acronym • Frequency: Increasing the number of times you train per week. For example currently running 2 times a week increase to running 3 times a week. • Intensity: Increasing the difficulty of the exercise you do. For example running at 12 min per mile instead of 10 min per mile or increasing the weight you are squatting with. • Time: Increasing the length of time that you are training for each session. For example cycling for 45 minutes instead of 30. • Type: Increase the difficulty of the training you are doing. For example progress from walking to running. The Principles of Muscle Overload Cont. • Full Range of Motion – The overload must be applied throughout the full range of motion. For example starting stretched past the relaxed position and ending in a fully contracted position. • Repetition – When an exercise has progressed through a complete range of motion and back to the beginning. For example one bicep curl is one repetition. – One-Repetition Maximum (1-RM) – One repetition performed against the maximum possible resistance. • Set – A series of repetition without a rest. For example 10 bicep curls in a row and then you rest for a minute = 1 set • Muscle Failure: The inability of a person to do another correct repetition in a set. **Minimum resistance needed to obtain strength gains = 50% of the One-Rep Maximum or completing 8-12 reps of each exercise. 2. The Principle of Progression • Your body adapts to lifting the same amount of weight therefore you need to… – Gradually increase the level of exercise in order to sustain improvement in physical fitness. • When you can correctly do the upper limit of repetitions (usually 12 reps) for each of three set without muscle failure, you need to increase your weight. 3. The Principle of Specificity • You must overload the specific muscle(s) you want to strengthen – The muscle(s) you want to strengthen are the ones you feel contract and become tense during the movement/exercise – For example: If you want to increase leg strength you must do leg exercises such as squats, lunges, calf raises, leg press, etc.