Non-verbal communication

Ing. Jiří Šnajdar
Lecture 3
Lecturer´s private note
The lectures do not cover completely all material, which
should students master at graduation in this subject.
The lectures are only instructions, narrative axis, that is
necessary to complete relevantly with self-study.
In lectures is what students will not find in recommended
The subject will be finished with fulfilment of these
conditions :
Processing of a special study, where the student will in
detail analyse some historical phenomenon from lectured
material in extent min. 4, max. 6 pages. The study will be
handed over in written or electronic form as a Word
document. Its processing is a requirement for fulfilment of a
credit test. Themes of studies will be assigned. Aprox. 24
Shannon – Weaver 1949
transmission model of communication
Harold Laswell
Who informs
What effect
What informs
What media
Whom informs ?
Models of mass communication
transmission model – gets on from Lasswell theory “Who says What
whom What channel
and with What effect”, the model renewed Westley and McLean with
interpolation (role of communicator – mediator) – the event receipts
Communicator and this transmits
– through Channel of Message to Receivers – so mass providers
are not authors of messages, they only choose (gatekeeping)
and mediate the events according to presumptive interests and
requirements of audience – it is purpose usage
– ritual model – according to J.Carey is communication connected
with ideas sharing, participation, association, community and
mutual belief. The ritual conception concentrates on keeping the
society in time, it is representing of shared ideas of society – it is
inner satisfaction of user
– promotional model – communication as showing off and taking
attention on purpose of filling an usual economical target of a
media – the model gets on from media competitiveness with a
target to take attention of the largest number of recipients as
possible, it exists only at presence and gives no space for
questions of reason and consequence.
cultural model – coding and decoding of medial content – it comes
from critical theory of mass communication and stresses the
research of audience power – the meaning is interpreted according
to context and audience culture – the announcement is constructed
from signs, which have the extension and denoted meanings
depend on choice of consignee, who must not receive the
announcement the way as was transmitted
- new schemas – with development of telematics media comes to
mass communication the element of interactivity –J.L. Bordewijk and
B.van Kaam model defines relations between speech, conversation,
consultation and registration.
Cognition theory
Cognition as adoption
Emotional estimation and memory marks
Rational cognition
Konrad Lorenz writes in the chapter, which he calls symptomatically “Nondeconstruction of experience” this :
“For scientist oriented natural science is almost forbidden to talk about
emotional qualities, because these are not defined by the language of exact
natural science, not quantitatively reached. The stricter is defined the human
cognition as that what can be expressed by words, the clearer is how many
essential phenomenon can not be expressed by words immediately.”
Origin of emotional estimation.
Epoch of signs and signals
space and time – social conditions
Time and space cognisance
Talking about universe
Explorer stories
Written sources
Reliable stories
Available horizon
Personal experience
Non-verbal and verbal communication 1.
• magical dimension
• rituals – annual seasons cycle, sun return and spring return
• signs and signals – medium is a message (McLuhan : through
smoke signal cannot be held a philosophic discurs )
Non-verbal communication (atavism) – stress on EMOTIONS
mimic - face expression
gestures - movements of body and its parts
posturology - speech of body poses
proxemics – distance in space and mutual bodies position
the haptics – touches
eyes contact – focusing, duration, frequency of look
Dancing and singing – rhythm
Non-verbal and verbal communication 2.
zones of space communication
Intimate zone – is in the range from 15cm – up to 50 cm. This zone is so
called emotional zone, which preserves each individual and does not allow the others
(for him strange persons) to enter this space in usual contact. In this space
can enter only the most allied. If the intimate zone is disrupt by entering of unwilling
person, the impaired individual show his strong negative attitude.
Private zone – is in the range from 50 cm - up to 1,5 m. In this distance stand the
people during friendly communication among fiends, fellows and at different parties
and similar get-togethers.
Social zone – is in the range from 1,5 m – up to 3,5 m. The social zone represents
the distance from strange and unknown people. Mostly stands in this distance those,
who entered the unknown society or unknown place.
Public zone – is in the range from 3,5 m up to the distance when it is still possible to
communicate in given surroundings. This distance is usual when we talk to a group of
people at public speech.
Non-verbal and verbal communication 3.
picture communication
Cro-Magnons – Altamira
Motivation for drawing speech
social organisation of collective behaviour – hunting strategy
magical decrease – fear elimination
record of own existence – signet, demise defiance
line rhythm – esthetic aspect
forming of adult education
Non-verbal and verbal communication 4.
Pictogram – pictorial writing
Already pre-historic civilisation drawn pictograms on the walls, later
from these developed pictorial writings.
The line between pictogram and writing pivots on a break, when the
signs ties up with narrative configurations.
(In the year 1849 asked with help of pictograms the Red Indians the
USA Congress for returning of hunting grounds)
From pictograms to writing
As the oldest known writing is considered the writing of old-European
civilisation, dated to 5th millennium B.C.
Already it was descried about 230 signs.
The other writing was wedge-shaped writing, which arose at
Sumerians at the end of 4th millennium B.C.
It was followed by the writing in Egypt and Indus basin and from this
time appeared the writing many times independently, connected with
different civilisations.
Sign systems
First logographic writings
Syllabic writings
Phonetic (alphabetical) writings
Writing, typographical object
objective (lexical) meaning of a word is given by consensus :
an average person uses about 8 – 10 000 words, its meaning is almost
generally known – it is denotative meaning of a language
Use of spoken and written language relies on a vocabulary, syntactic
and grammar rules.
subjective (personal) meaning, emotional-tinted associations, i.e.
denotation meaning of language.
Difference between language and iconic immediateness
Picture (photography, film) = evidence
Language expression works with intercession (conventionality)
Science about stigmal systems
Semiotics (from Greek σημειον sémeion, sign, marking) is the science
about stigmal systems.
Semiotics according to generally accepted Charles Morrise´s
dividing is divided into :
semantics, dealing with signs´ meanings
syntactic, syntax, which studies mutual relations among signs
pragmatic, which studies usage of signs, relations between signs and
their users
Significant theoreticians of semiotics Roland Barthes, Umberto Eco,
Louis Hjelmslev, Charles W. Morris, Charles Peirce, Ferdinand de
Signs classification
at the end of 19th and beginning of 20th century dealt with the semiotics
questions especially Saussure (1857-1913) – founder of modern
European linguistics and American philosopher, lately considered as
founder of semiotics Ch.S.Peirce (1839-1914).
Peirce according to character of relation between denoting and denoted
thing differentiated three kinds of signs :
icons, iconic signs
Indexes, index signs
Symbols, symbolic signs
Architecture as integrating sociable announcement
Pyramids – sovereign monarch position, which outlasts his physical
life. He his related with deities.
Basic signs of Hellenic architecture – human and his relations to
transcendence :
temple construction
human´s measurement
principle of non-psychological announcement of ideal (destiny of
Socrates and Feidius – Perikles)
Roman architecture :
extent of Romans in earthly world – principle of domination
Communication as source of power
Pillars of power  pluralization of evolution :
• Church
• Monarch
• Local authority
• Economical diversity
• Mercantile diversity
• University
Mutual overlap of themes on sides.
Expansion of secular authority, mercantile authority and economical
Non-antagonistic discrepancies  coalition and authority´s
China – from 8th century
Over Islamic world (Moors) to Europe
Key invention for the typography 1448 (Almanach auf das Jahr 1448)
Dynamic development
beginning of 16th century – thousand books exist
national languages
literary norm of national languages
conditions for national states formation
decentralisation of Europe – gradual loss of church hierarchy power
Martin Luther
1507 ordained a catholic priest
October 1517 – 95 articles (supposedly nailed on door of the church in
Especially against “indulgences”, which started to issue the pope Lev
X. as a source of financing of the St. Peter´s cathedral
Luther deconstructs the infallibility of pope and councils
Lev X. ordered to burn all his publications (analogy to Jan Hus)
Martin Luther II.
Luther burned pope´s bull
Lev X. excommunicates Luther (1521)
In exile in the castle Wartburg translates New Testament in German
With his workmate Philopp Melanchthond lays the basis of
institutionalized Evangelical denomination (1530 Augsburk edition of
Melanchthon persuaition).
Translation of Old Testament finishes Luther in cooperation with other
Wittenbergs´ theologians in the year 1534
Guttenberg – from Middle Ages to modern times
Victor Hugo invention of typography (1450) – one of the biggest events
in history
discovery of America (1492)
fall of Constantinople into hands of Turks (1453)
end of Byzantine empire
Inspiration before typography
lettering by stamps on leather book bindings.
* (as the oldest in considered the lettering on gothic binding of
Nuernberg´s Black Friar Conrada Forster of Ansbach from the years
print on clothes
end of 14th century woodprint
* (print of wooden sliced stocks on paper)
connection of individual pages of woodprints developed so called block
* (from the Netherlands further spread also to Germany)
Analogy with xylograph was metal engraving
Conditions of new media formation
Conditions for media formation :
Technical and technological + networks
Social (literacy + free time expansion)
Economical on the side of offer (creation profitability and distribution 
advertising and power)
Economical on the side of demand (information price – information
Space in total scope of hyped world (free segment)
Conditions of new media formation II
In process of expansion of individual media comes to :
Exists an empty segment in the sphere of perception (sense extension)
The sign system intensely develops and economises
Conditions of new media formation III
The target social groups are clearly differentiated
Media is a topic of perception, but at the same time tyrannises its
(itemises artificially time and usage)
Newspapers predecessors
• Acta urbis
* Roman state newspapers
- general (public) accessible (for those who could read)
* news in form of panels crushed by gypsum (placed on Capitol)
official (protocols of senate councils)
news taken from chronicle
“gutter” – information about fights, births, …
via runners came to provinces
recorded battles
* before Rome existed Di-bau
rather curiosities
Predecessors of journalists in medieval Europe
wandering singers who told about actual events and commented it
couriers and town typists
book printers, post officers, businessmen, diplomats (easy approach to
the first journalists who wrote were correspondents of princes and
imperial towns
16th century “scrittori d´avisi” collected information, copied them and
information commodification
Letters. Newspapers written by hand
letters – private and public part (information about places, where is the
writer, about practices and relations – Marco Dannini – 1400 – together
150 letters)
newspapers written by hand could better avoid the censorship
could work with exclusive information
“Nürnberger Nachrichten”
in Augsburg Fuggery
“Ordinary – Zeitungen” written by hand
Fuger newspapers (1520-1604)
correspondence of banker´s family Fuger (Northern Italy)
to develop bank business contact
20-30 copies
own correspondents network in whole Europe
non-examined messages were marked as “in blanco” (seriousness)
the most messages from Antwerpy and also from Prague (1500)
Leaflets in 16th century
books print was expensive (with binding etc.)
compensation leaflets sold at markets
15-16 pages for 9 pennies
Main contents of leaflets in the 16th century
98 messages (26%) weather
22% monsters
10% politics
7,6% crimes
6% war with Turks
Four traits of modern newspapers 17th century
public accessibility
topicality (information refers to present and influences it)
universal (no theme is left aside)
Distribution condition
Post – from beginning of 17th century
fixed routes
regular intervals
harness stations
Thurn Taxi – 1615 nominated for “top postmaster”
Periodicity – first journal
first regularly issued newspapers :
1605 weekly in post rhythm “Relationen” (Strasbourg)
1609 in Germany “Aviso” in Wolfenbuttel (Aviza relationen oder
Holland “ Nieuwe Thidingen“
1622 in England “Weekly News”
1625 in France “Gazzette” (press is supported by government)
1631 in Holland “Ordinary” (Protestantism)
1636 in Italy
First journal
1650 “Einkommende Zeitung” in Leipzig
Newspapers edition in 17th century 100 to 200 exemplars
1680 Frankfurter newspapers reached edition of 1500 exemplars.
The fight for press freedom in 17th century
Star chamber (censorship bureau) established in 1487
1. moral freedom
2. religious freedom
3. intellectual freedom – the sense of life if searching for truth
4. politics freedom
(to the end of life became Millton a censor)
France before revolution
1789 to 1830
social stress
illegal and half-legal brochures, presses and pamphlets
Louis XVI. – press freedom as decoy to keep the regime
Surge of printed matters, unstopped anarchy (founded over 150 new
papers also outside Paris)
some before revolution papers lapsed (Journal de Paris, Gazette de
“Moniteur universel” - the first French paper of large format, 4 pages
with 3 columns
- political news increased
- overprinting of deputy speeches
Earl Mirabeau “lion of revolution” - Journal des États Génereux“
French revolution
Big French revolution
The Big French revolution is the time period in France history between
the years 1789 – 1799, from convocation of general classes by the
king Louis XVI. until taking the authority by Napoleon Bonaparte.
Absolute monarchy was replaced by people administration and
republicans, even if with frequent remises
Roman Catholic religious was forced to make basic restructuring
Revolution was the definite end of old regime.
14th July 1789 after five hours was captured Bastila – prison, symbol of
for the people psyche it has a resounding importance. “It proceeds !!”
was the motto of the day.
France after revolution
Enthusiasm from freedom
Jean-Paul Marat “L ´Ami du peuple“ People´s friend (Engels
presented as ideal of revolutionary journalism)
- personal journalism
- stress on editorials, polemics, no topicality
- wrote his list himself
General attributes :
- knowledge of reach of journalist revelation
- use of papers as threat against publication of private scandals of
politicians (it was a matter of life and death)
- opened scandalising and blackmailing
- corruption of journalists – sapped the social status of journalists
For national classes :
Jacques René Hébert, Gracchus Babeuf – „Le Tribun de Peuple“ – by
mouth of Parisian figure, father Duchense taken the attitude to
individual events, explained contexts – genre progress
1797 – end of press freedom, 44 papers were forbidden, adoption of
tamp tax.
up to 1704 – “The Boston News Letter” – regular charged advertising
(sell of slaves)
Pennsylvan Gazette – Benjamin Franklin
regularly since 1721