File - Mrs. Spearman's Medical Terminology Class

Mrs. Spearman
Room 300
I can:
 Define anatomy, physiology, and pathology.
 Define the term anatomical position.
 Define dthe directional terms and sections (planes) used in
describing the body and the relationship of body parts to one
 List the major cavities of the body and the subdivisions of
Anatomic Direction System
 Used to describe the locations of the organs of the body
 The simplest anatomical direction we already know is LEFT
 There are several additional ways to describe the location of
body parts.
 These anatomical reference systems include:
 Body Directions
 Body Planes
 Body cavities
What is Anatomy and Physiology?
 Anatomy-the study of the parts of the body
 Physiology-the study of the function of the body parts
What is anatomical position?
 A reference position, the body is standing with the arms at
the sides and palms turned forward.
Anatomical Directions
 Superior—above
 Cephalic—toward the head
Caudal—toward the feet
 Anterior—in front of , front
Posterior—behind, back
 Ventral—front
 Medial—toward the middle
Lateral—away from the midline, side
 Proximal—situated nearest the midline
 Distal—situated farthest from the midline
Planes or Body Sections Fig. 2.3
 Sagittal plane—divides the body into right and left sections
 Midsagittal—plane that divides into two equal right and left
 Frontal (coronal) plane—divides the body into anterior and
posterior sections
 Transverse plane—horizontal plane that divides the body
into upper and lower sections
Directions and planes of the body.
Write It! Anterior vs. Posterior
Answer the questions as if you were standing in anatomical position.
1. The bulgy part of your elbow is located on the ____________________________ side
of the arm.
2.Your fingernails are located on the _______________________ side of the finger.
3.Your kneecap is located on the _______________________ side of the body.
4.Your naval is located on the ________________________ side of the body.
5.Your gluteal region (buttocks) is located on the ________________ side of the body.
Write It!
Superior vs. Inferior
1.The knee is ____________________ to the hip bones.
2.The shoulder is _____________________ to the elbow.
3. The lips are _______________________ to the nose.
4. The elbow is ____________________ to the hand.
5. The chest is ___________________ to the abdomen.
Body Cavities Fig. 2.5
 Ventral cavity
 Thoracic cavity
 Mediastinum—midportion of thoracic cavity
 Pleural cavities—right lung located in right pleural cavity, left lung in left
pleural cavity
 Abdominopelvic cavity
 Abdominal cavity contains stomach, intestines, liver, gallbladder,
pancreas, and spleen
 Pelvic cavity contains reproductive organs, urinary bladder, and lower
part of the intestine
 9 regions
 Four quadrants
Body Cavities cont.
 Dorsal cavity
 Cranial cavity contains brain
 Spinal cavity contains spinal cord
Major Body Cavities
9 regions of the abdominopelvic cavity
4 Regions of the and Abdomen
Structures of the Body
 Cells
 Tissues
 Organs
 Body systems
 The smallest units of the body.
 Cells are grouped together to form tissues.
 Cytology is the study of cells.
Genetic Disorders
 Also known as hereditary disorders, are diseases or conditions caused by
a defective gene.
 Cystic fibrosis affects both the respiratory and digestive system.
 Down syndrome, also known as trisomy 21, is a genetic syndrome
characterized by varying degrees of mental retardation and
multiple physical abnormalities.
 Hemophilia is a group of hereditary bleeding disorders in
which one of the factors needed to clot the blood is missing.
Genetic transmission is usually from mother to son.
 Huntington’s disease, is a hereditary disorder passed from parent
to child means it can be passed on by just one parent. Symptoms
appear in midlife and cause irreversible and progressive
weakness of muscle fibers.
 Phenylketonuria is a genetic disorder in which an essential
digestive enzyme is missing. PKU can cause severe mental
retardation if not treated.
Genetic Disorder cont.
 Sickle cell anemia is a group of inherited red blood cell
 Tay-Sachs disease is a hereditary disease in which a missing
enzyme in the brain causes progressive physical degeneration,
mental retardation, and early death.
Communicable Disease
 Communicable disease (Contagious disease)—
transmitted from one person to another person either by
direct or by indirect contact with contaminated objects
 Example: Flu, AIDS, chicken pox
Disease Transmission
 Indirect contact transmission—When a person is
infected by contact with a contaminated surface
 Bloodborne transmission—the spread of a disease
through contact with blood or other body fluids
 Example: HIV or STD
 Airborne transmission—occurs through contact with
contaminated respiratory droplets (coughing or sneezing)
 Examples: Tuberculosis, colds, flu
 Food-borne and waterborne transmission (fecal-oral
transmission)—caused by eating or drinking contaminated
food or water
Outbreaks of Diseases
 Epidemiologist—a specialist that studies outbreaks of
disease within a population
 Endemic—the ongoing presence of a disease within a
population, group, or area
 Example: Common cold in the general population
 Epidemic—Sudden and widespread outbreak of a
disease within a specific population or area
 Example: Sudden widespread outbreak of chicken pox in
children in Louisiana
 Pandemic—an outbreak of a disease occurring over a
large geographic area, possibly worldwide
 Example: worldwide spread of Swine Flu