Socialization and Change

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Socialization and Change:

A Journey through

Crime, Drugs and Recovery

David A. Deitch, PhD

Professor of Clinical Psychiatry

University of California, San Diego

Addiction Training Center

Overview

• A picture of current problems

• A brief look at what’s coming

• How we develop crime & drug taking

• Types of substance abusing offenders

Economic Costs

Of the $620 billion total the states spent, $81.3 billion (13.1%)

- was used to deal with substance abuse and addiction

The states spend 113 times as much to clean up the devastation substance abuse and addiction visit on children as they do to prevent and treat it

Each American paid $277 per year in state taxes to deal with the burden of substance abuse and addiction in their social programs and only $10 a year for prevention and treatment

Of the $453.5 billion states spent in the 16 budget categories of public programs, $81.3 billion

—(17.9%) percent--was linked to substance abuse and addiction

The National Center of Addiction and Substance Abuse, 2000

Type of Offense (June, 1997)

5.6

5.9

2.6

3.4

0.7

9.6

Drug Offenses

Extortion

Immigration

60.2

Robbery

Property Offenses

White Collars

Firearms, Explosives

Violent

The Number of Inmates Released

Federal and States Prisons

635,000

473,300

1995 2001

Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2001

Drug Arrests By Decade

(FBI Crime Reports)

70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%

7.9%

1941-50

0.3%

1951-60

0.7%

1961-70

36.9%

1971-80

54.2%

1981-90

63.7%

1990-1999

The Search For Causes

Natural Innate Drives

Inherited Parts of Physical and Psychological Well-being

Hunger

Thirst

Shelter

Sex

( Physical Survival )

Altered Consciousness

The Search For Causes

Disease Concept of Alcoholism

Know Etiology

Know Progression

Know Outcome

Genetic Model

Adoption and Twin Studies

Receptor Genes

Son of Alcoholics and Tolerance

Twin Studies

Psychological Models

Addictive Personality

Psychological Vulnerability

Self Medicating

Personality Issues (anti-social, C.D., etc..)

Self Esteem

Risk Taking

Psychoanalytic Models

Oral

Oral Longing

Maternal-Depravation

Sexual Adequacy

Sexual Identity

Structural Deficit in Object Relations

Defective Stimulus Barriers (Krystal-Raskin)

Inability to Desomatise Emotions

Mal-adaptive Narcissism (Wursmer)

Defense Against Overwhelming Feelings of Rage and Loneliness

Impoverished Self Esteem (Khamtzian)

Lack of Capacity for Self Care and Poor Emotional

Regulation

Tension and Stress Reduction Model

Low Tolerance for Tension

Stimulus Augmenting

Drugs (

CNS, D)

) Reduce Tension = People Use it and Get this

Response =

Reinforcement

Socio-Cultural Models

Cultural Circumstances - Tension

Attitude Toward Drug Taking

Cultural; Substitutes as Means of Satisfaction

Alienation

– Anomie

Neurotransmitters Brain Pleasure Centers

Dopamine

Re uptake

Inhibition

Number of Juvenile Arrests

Nationwide 1996

• 1.9 Million juvenile arrests, up 35.4% from

1987

• 93,000 Juveniles arrested for FBI Violent

Index Crimes, up 59.9% from 1987 murder, rape, robbery, aggravated assault

• 480,000 Juveniles arrested for FBI Property

Index Crimes, up 7.9% from 1987 burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft, arson

Source: FBI Crime in the United States, 1996

– Table 32

Impact of Drugs on Criminality

28

18

Age 7 13

Normal bell curve

If drugs come into play

Role of Biology and Environment

Non Antisocial

Parent/

Psychological

Illness or

Antisocial

Environment

Criminal Parent/

Non Criminal

Adoptee

Antisocial

Parent/

Antisocial

Adoptive

Environment

R.J. Cadoret, 1978, Archives of General Psychiatry

Birth Complications & Maternal Rejection

50

45

25

20

15

10

40

35

30

5

0

No Rejection / No

Complication

N=1750

Rejection Only

N=256

Birth Complication

Only

N=2064

Rejection and Birth

Complication

N=191

A. Raine, 1994, Archives of General Psychiatry

Risk Factors

Psychiatric

Abusive/violent family

Drug use environment

Socialization Factors

Episodic Symptoms

Neuro/Limbic dysfunction

Cognitive impairments

External

Vulnerabilities

Inherent

Vulnerabilities

How We Develop: Risk Factors Cascading

Across Domains of Development &Time

Age <1 Difficult to soothe infant

Age 2

Age 3

Age 4

Age 5

Age 6

Age 7

Coercive parent-child relationship

Poor self-regulation & control

Child rejected by pro-social peers

Child rejected by teacher

Child bonds to other rejected peers

Poor school bonding

How We Develop Risk Factors Cascading

Across Domains of Development & Time

Age 8

Age 9

Age 10

Age 11

Age 12

Age 13

Age 14

Poor academic achievement

Minor infractions: lying, petty stealing

Cigarette smoking

Alcohol use

Marihuana use, arrests

Risky sexual behavior

Crack cocaine

How We Develop

• Remember: Social bonding is

– Attachment to others in social unit

– Investment in lines of action consistent with social unit

– Belief in values of the unit

How We Develop

Bonding & Environment

For example:

– Abandonment

– Foster care

– Group homes

– Juvenile detention

– Prison

How We Develop

Bonding & Environment

All advance an education

A sense of social definition…

Their notion of the world and how to handle it --

“might is right” -- etc.

How We Develop

Integration

Inner Voices / Conscience

Culture, atmosphere & reference points become deeply integrated

It is our definition of self

These become our inner voices

These voices influence our attitudes and behavior

Behavior & Attitude

PRO-SOCIAL

OR

ANTI-SOCIAL

Depends on predominant behaviors

Values & norms of those to whom we are bonded

Criminal Personality Prototypes

Psychopaths

ASPDs

Sociopaths

Perpetrators with criminal records

All perpetrators of illegal, criminal and destructive acts

Henry Richards, PhD, U Wash

Now What?

The person who comes to us bonded, attached and has powerful inner voices.

Types of Substance Abusing

Offenders

Substance abusing offenders are not a homogenous group.

A classification model:

The Early Stage Substance Abuser

The Addict

The Dually Diagnosed Substance Abuser

The Criminogenic Substance Abuser

The Early Stage Substance

Abuser

Early stage refers to experimental and recreational substance abusers whose crimes result from impaired judgment or disinhibition while under the influence of drugs and/or alcohol

The Addict

Addicts are those for whom daily life is dedicated to drug-seeking behavior.

Petty crime has become their primary means to support their addiction.

Serious or violent crime is less prevalent in this group than in the criminogenic substance abuser .

The Dually Diagnosed

Substance Abuser

The mentally ill substance abuser, often referred to as dually diagnosed, has a concurrent mental illness and substance abuse problem .

The Criminogenic Substance

Abuser

Criminogenic substance abusers are those who do not wish to be part of mainstream society and have chosen to be members of outlaw subcultures.

Their substance abuse is incidental to their criminal behavior.

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