Name: _________________ Biology – Final Exam Review Guide Mrs. Reed & Mr. Daniel The final exam will cover Mammals, Primate Evolution and Human Anatomy Systems You should study your notes!! **Remember: You may also use a 3 x 5, handwritten or typed note card on your exam. You may use both sides, but the index card must be an original and not a photocopy. MAMMALS 1. Under which group of mammals do humans fall? ______________ 2. What are the characteristics of Mammals? 3. The three groups of mammals are? 4. The earliest mammal dates back to? 5. Describe the earliest mammal? 6. Placental mammal babies develop? 7. Compare and contrast Mammal digestion. (Digestive tracts & Teeth) 8. An example of a marsupial native to North America is the ______________ 9. The group of mammals that lay eggs is the _________________. 10. Provide an example of a monotreme: _______________ 11. The ___________________ are the group of mammals that “give birth twice” meaning that the offspring is initially born after a few weeks but then migrates to a pouch where it spends the next few months developing. 12. Monotremes are thought to be a remnant of __________________ ancestry. 13. All mammals have 4 general characteristics in common. a. ______________________________ b. ______________________________ c. ______________________________ d. ______________________________ 14. ______________ can be used to identify mammal diets. Herbivore, carnivore or omnivore. 15. The 19 orders of mammals can be placed into 3 groups based on how they ___________________. PRIMATE EVOLUTION Fill in the blank: 16. The term “Primates” represents the taxonomic category of a(n) ___________________. 17. With 98-99% of DNA in common, the primates most closely related to modern humans are the __________________________. 18. “Lucy” is more accurately known as ___________________ ____________________. 19. _________ ____________ are thought to have been the first hominids to leave Africa. 20. Sahelanthropus is thought to have been the first to exhibit ________________________. 21. What characteristics do primates have in common? 22. Describe the Neanderthals. 23. Name the organisms discussed in class that are not member of the genus Homo 24. What tools are used to study the evolution of humans? HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY 25. The circulatory system is composed of ______________, _________________, and the _______________. 26. What is Plasma ? 27. List the two types of Blood cells and their functions. 28. Describe structure & function of arteries. 29. Name two arteries in the Human Body. 30. Describe the structure & function of veins. 31. Name two veins in the Human Body. 32. Where are capillaries found in the Human Body? 33. What is their function? 34. Label the chambers of the Heart and the major blood vessels off the Heart. Correctly label the diagram below. 35. Amylase produced by the salivary glands targets __________________________________ in food. 36. What is digested in the stomach? 37. The pancreas produces what substance? 38. The first part of the small intestine is called what? 39. Which is the primary function of the large intestine? 40. What are the 3 part of the large intestine? 41. What regulates the flow of bile into the digestive tract? 42. What is produced in the stomach? 45. 43. 44. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. What 2 gases are exchanged between the Aveoli and the capillaries? 52. Why should you breathe in through your nose instead of your mouth? 53. What is the function of the Epiglottis? 54. What is the material the rings the Trachea to help keep it open? 55. What is the Diaphragm made of?