# Excel: Working With Formulas

```Excel: Working With
Formulas
Cooperative Conversations
January 12, 2007
Introduction to Excel
• Workbook, Sheet, Row, Column, Cell
Introduction to Excel
• Name Box (Cell Address)
• Formula Bar (Contents of Cell)
• Cells can contain Values or Formulas
• Commas separate values (1,2,3) is 1 and 2 and 3
• Colons indicate ranges (A2:A5) is Cell A2 through A5
Introduction to Formulas
• All Formulas begin with =
• Basic Formulas (numbers, cells, or both)
Subtract - Multiply *
Divide /
=10+5
=10-5
=10*5
=10/5
=B3+C3
=B3-C3
=B3*C3
=B3/C3
=B3+5
=B3-5
=B3*5
=B3/5
Introduction to Formulas
• All Formulas begin with =
• Advanced Formulas (multiple operations)
– Math rules apply, multiplication and division
are done first, addition and subtraction next
– Use Parentheses to manipulate order
Formula
Result
Formula
Result
=10-5-2
3
=10/5*2
4
=10-5*2
0
=(10-5)*2
10
=B2-C2-D2
3
=B2/C2*D2
4
=B2-C2*D2
0
=(B2-C2)*D2
10
Introduction to Formulas
• All Formulas begin with =
• Automatic Functions (Toolbar button Σ)
=Sum(1,2) or =Sum(A3,A7,A9) or =Sum(A1:A5)
=Average(1,3,5) or =Average(A1:A3,A5)
=Count(A1:A5)
=Max(B2:B25)
=Min(B2:B25)
• Menu Insert/Function for more options
• Use the Help menu
Introduction to Formulas
• Formulas can be combined
– The SUM of participants from the first six
months (29) PLUS the SUM of participants
from the last six months (34) is (63) then
MULTIPLIED by the result of twelve MINUS
four (8) to result in 504
• Or the result of a formula
can be used in a formula
Introduction to Formulas
• Formulas can reference different
“Workbooks” or “Sheets”
=A10*Sheet2!B5 is the value from Cell A10 of
our current worksheet multiplied by the value
of Cell B5 from Sheet 2
• Formulas can round (ROUND), give
results based on criteria that you set (IF),
or can calculate a payment schedule
(PMT) based on a principal value and
interest rates
Tips
• Sum (Σ) toolbar button (etc.) will
automatically select adjacent cells until
interrupted by text or an empty cell
• Different cells can be selected by dragging
the mouse from the start cell to the end
cell
Tips
• Parentheses will bold briefly when closed
to help identify which portion of your
formula has been completed
• Cells will be outlined in the same color as
the text in the formula when the cursor is
in the formula bar
Tips
• Formulas with errors will have a green triangle
on the cell, and a symbol on the right when the
cell is selected that may offer help resolving the
issue
– #Value! Indicates that there is an error
with the formula – in this case there is a number
being multiplied by a cell that contains text
– #Ref! Indicates that there is an invalid cell reference –
usually because a formula has been copied or moved
– ###### Indicates that the value to be displayed is
larger than will fit in the cell
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