Progressive Era to WWI Recap Teddy Roosevelt • Becomes president in September 1901 after the assassination of President McKinley • Youngest president in American history (age 42), young and athletic • Activist, reform minded and full of energy • Reelected in 1904 • Speak softly and carry a large stick-Big Stick Diplomacy Importance of the Navy Control of the sea was key to world dominance Square Deal • Favored neither labor or business, wanted square deal for both. Past presidents had taken sides. • First president to enforce the Sherman Antitrust Act (passed in 1890). Worked to break up bad trusts that harmed the public and stifled competition and regulate good trusts which through efficiency and low prices dominated a market. • Regulated the railroads and strengthened the Interstate Commerce Commission. • Passed The Pure Food and Drug Act and The Meat Inspection Act • Set aside 150 million acres of federal land for natural reserves • Passed Newlands Reclamation Act which provided money from sale of public land for irrigation projects in the West. • Established the National Conservation Commission Monroe Doctrine, Roosevelt Corollary • Passed by President Monroe in 1823 • Forbid European colonization in the Americas • The US opposed any attempts by a European power to interfere in the affairs of any republic in the Western Hemisphere. • Roosevelt Corollary-Many Latin American countries in debt to European powers. Roosevelt wanted US intervention instead of European intervention. US would send gunboats to Latin American countries that were delinquent in paying its debts. US military would occupy ports until debts were paid. Later leads to poor US relations with Latin America. Spanish American War Causes Jingoism-intense form of nationalism calling for an aggressive foreign policy. Cleveland and McKinley did not support it. American investments in Cuban sugar Spanish misrule of Cuba Monroe Doctrine Yellow press exaggerated false accounts of Spanish atrocities in Cuba De Lome Letter (1898)-Letter written by Spanish Minister to the US, critical of President McKinley. Letter leaked to the press. Spanish American War Causes Sinking of the Maine-February 15th, 1898 US battleship was sunk in the harbor of Havana, Cuba. Killed 260 Americans on board. Yellow press accused Spain of sinking the ship. Most likely explosion was an accident. McKinley’s War Message-After sinking of the Maine, McKinley issued an ultimatum to Spain demanding it agree to ceasefire in Cuba. Spain agreed, but US newspapers and Congress continued to clamor for war. Teller Amendment-Congress passed a joint resolution on April 20th authorizing war. Part of resolution stated the US would not take political control of Cuba and that once peace was restored Cuba would control its own government. Results of War • War was short and ended on December 10th, 1898. • Teddy Roosevelt’s Rough Riders (regiment of volunteers) participated in the most celebrated event of the war, the cavalry charge up San Juan Hill in Cuba. They succeeded in defeating the poorly led Spanish army. • Hawaii was annexed in July of 1898, becomes a territory of the US in 1900, and fiftieth state in August 1959. • Recognized Cuban independence. • US acquired Puerto Rico in Caribbean and Guam in the Pacific • US also acquired the Philippines as a colony in return for payment to Spain of $20 million. • Should the US acquire the Philippines? Did it violate the Declaration of Independence and deprive Filipinos of the right to “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness?” Panama Canal Challenges • Colombia controlled the Isthmus of Panama. Roosevelt orchestrated a revolt for Panama’s independence in 1903. Hay-Bunua-Varilla Treaty of 1903 was signed and granted the US all rights over the 51 mile long and 10 mile wide Canal Zone. • Canal construction began in 1904 and was complete in 1914. • Mosquitoes that caused yellow fever were eliminated so canal could be built. • The Canal was returned to Panama in 1999. Presidents from this time period William McKinley-Republican. March 4th, 1897-September 14th, 1901 Teddy Roosevelt –Republican-September 14th, 1901-March 4th, 1909 Presidents-continued William H. Taft-Republican. March 4th, 1909-March 4th 1913. Woodrow Wilson. Democrat. March 4th, 1913-March 4th 1921. Election of 1912 Four candidates William Taft-Republican Teddy Roosevelt-Bull Moose party (Progressive Republicans) Woodrow Wilson-Democrat Eugene V. Debs-Socialist Republicans split between Taft and Roosevelt and Wilson wins.