Conquest and Colonies

Conquest and Colonies
Chapter 16 Section 2
Encomienda System
Cruelty of the Spanish
Encomienda System on
a Sugar Plantation,
Santo Domingo
Hernan Cortes
• Conquistador who led
an expedition to Mexico
that ended in the
conquest of the Aztec
Moctezuma II
• Cortes was able to use
Native Americans that
resented the Aztecs to
conquer their empire
• Guns, horses and
disease also helped the
Aztec Empire conquered by Cortes
Francisco Pizarro
• 10 years after Cortes
captured the Aztec
Empire he went after
the Incan Empire
because of their wealth
• Small pox had
weakened the Incan
• Atahualpa was the new
ruler after a civil war
and Pizarro demanded
he accept Christianity
and turn all his empire
over to the Spanish
• Atahualpa gives Pizarro
a huge fortune of gold
and silver
• Spanish army killed him
and went south to the
Incan capital at Cuzco
• They took over the
Life in the Spanish Empire
• Spain had control of a
huge empire in the
• Viceroys-officials
chosen by the Spanish
king to rule large areas
in the Americas
• 1. Mining of gold and
• 2. Farming with Native
American workers
• Native American
Populations dropped
from 50 million to 4
• Bartolome de Las Casasreplace labor with
imported Africans
The Portuguese in Brazil
• Not as large as the
Spanish Empire
• Why????-Treaty of
Tordesillas signed in
1494 with Spain
• Imaginary line drawn in
the Atlantic and
everything to the west
went to Spain and the
east went to Portugal
French colonies in America
• Set up their colonies in
New France or what is
now Canada
• Didn’t find gold like the
Spanish but found fish
and furs
• Didn’t send many
French and Native Americans
• French did not enslave them
• French and Native American’s traded with
each other
• French traders married Native American
Samuel de Champlain
• Founded the city of Quebec
in 1608
Rene-Robert La Salle
• Sailed down the Mississippi
River in 1682
• Claimed the fertile land for
France and named it
Dutch Colonization
The Dutch
• Settled along the Hudson River in New York
• Founded the city of New Amsterdam which
later became New York City
• Settlement remained small because the Dutch
were focused on their other settlement
English Colonies
Jamestown 1607
Plymouth 1620