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Implementing Codesign in Xilinx
Virtex II Pro
Betim Çiço, Hergys Rexha
Department of Informatics Engineering
Faculty of Information Technologies
Polytechnic University of Tirana
Outline
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Introduction
The main algorithm proposed
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Spotlights
Static lights
Light pairs
System implementation
Results
Conclusions
Introduction
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Future of automotive systems?
=> video based driver assistance.
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Complex algorithm are required. (and they need to
be executed faster and faster)
One solution would be the use of dedicated HW.
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Drawback, is the lack of the flexibility.
Nowadays systems for driver assistance offer
features such, lane departure or cruise control
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cameras and radar sensors
Introduction
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But we want more...
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The proposed vision-based concept
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We want help in more complex situations, like urban traffic.
Separation, repetitive operations and high level
application code.
Repetitive operations are accelerated by
coprocessors.
High level application code is implemented fully
programmable on standard CPU cores.
Achivments
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Fast execution
Flexibility
The main algorithm
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An algorithm to detect cars by taillights.
Tunnel or night time driving on roads with separated
lanes for each direction.
Properties of the algorithm:
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searches for light pairs that stem from cars.
compare the properties of car lights with the lights of the tunnel.
searches for the illumination of a license plate.
We demonstrate that the best way for this algorithm
to be implemented is the division into a hardware
and a software part.
Cont`
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The image is recorded from a video camera
(25 grayscale frames per second).
The image then is processed by the
subsequent engines and software parts.
At the end we have as a result, car
identification by taillights.
Basic Schematic
Schematic Summary
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Hardware implemented parts:
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PlateSearchEngine (license of the car)
Spotlight-Engine
LabelingEngine
Software implemented parts
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Programmable software that performs several actions like
shown in the scheme.
Spotlight Engine
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From Camera the frame goes:
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To the Spotlight Engine
To the Platesearch Engine
Depending on a threshold, the spotlight
engine will give a binary image.
Spotlights
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Bright regions in the image that are ideally round
and surrounded by dark pixels
Taillights of cars typically appear as spotlights
Proposed algorithm applies a simple shape filter to
the image
We define the two pixel sets relative to the current
pixel (CP). If all pixels in PF are darker than all
pixels in PS, the CP is a spotlight pixel
lum(PS) > lum(PF ) + threshold
Labeling Engine
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Takes as input, the binary image given from
Spotlight Engine
Searches the binary image for regions of
connected white pixels
Creates a label for each region
Gives as an output a list of labels
Each label corresponds to one spotlight
Static lights
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We have a list of spotlights that have been extracted
We have these properties for each spot:
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Bounding rectangle
Position in the image (coordinates of the center of the
bounding rectangle)
Total brightness
Number of pixels
Static lights, i.e. they do not move relative to the
road
Direction of the light’s motion vector can be used to
determine static lights.
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For each light in the current frame, a close by light is
searched in the previous frame
Finding light pairs
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We have to consider
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Distance of lights, y-component
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Distance of lights, x-component
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A vehicle that is far away from the camera appears more in the
top of the image than a closer vehicle
Existence of additional light in between the pair
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Both taillights of a car are expected to be on the same height on a
flat road
In that case, the two outer lights of the four spotlights could be
considered as one candidate pair
At the end, including the continuity vector, we come
up with the best candidates for light pairs.
System Implementation
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The system was
implemented on a
Xilinx Virtex-II Pro
FPGA
That FPGA also
features two embedded
300 MHz PowerPC
CPU cores, one of
which was used to run
an embedded Linux
operating system
Results
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For the Spotlight Engine we have 7 times
increase in speed, compared to Pentium 4
processor.
173 time increase in speed compared to a
Power PC processor.
Conclusions
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As we have seen through this work in today’s video
assistance systems for drivers need to be real time
and flexible .
We used here a new type of design where hardware
and software cooperate to give both real time
performance and flexibility.
What is more important:
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“By implementing hardware coprocessors we let repetitive
tasks to be handled by hardware engines while the
software part takes care of the interface between parts of
the system and some computations on a small amount of
data”.
With Codesign we release the processor load during
the computations.
Thank you...
[email protected], [email protected]
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