1. What is Heredity? • The passing of traits (physical characteristics) from parents to offspring. 2. What percentage or fraction does each parent contribute of the total number of chromosomes in an offspring? • 50% 1/2 3. What are alleles? • Different forms of the same gene. 4. How do dominant and recessive alleles work together? • Dominant alleles cancel out recessive alleles. 5 How are the sex cells formed during meiosis different from the parent cells? • They only have half the number of the original chromosomes from the parent. 6. What is an organism’s phenotype? • Its physical characteristics/ basically what it looks like. 7. Give the correct definition of mutation. • Any change in a gene or chromosome. 7b. When is a mutation harmful? • When it decreases an organisms chance to survive 8. What is DNA and what rod- shaped structure is DNA found on? • DNA is the genetic material found in cells and is found on the chromosomes. • 9. Cross TT and tt • TT=dad tt=mom T T t Tt Tt t Tt Tt 9a. T (Tall is dominant) 9b. The genotype of all offspring are Tt 10. Punnett square for Tt and Tt. Tt = Mom T t T TT Tt t Tt tt Tt = Dad 10b. 75% are Tall 11. Explain how the finches Darwin observed on the Galapagos were different and how this adaptation helped them. • Each island had finches with unique beaks adapted to their environment. 12. What is evolution? • The gradual change in a species over time. 13. What is an adaptation? • Small changes or traits that helps an organism survive and reproduce in its environment. • For example, a bird that has to crack shells has the adaption of a large powerful beak, yet a bird that has to reach into holes in bark has the adaption of a skinny beak. 14. What are variations? • Differences between individuals of the same species 15. What is Natural Selection? • Natural selection is the process by which animals who are better adapted to the environment are more likely to survive and reproduce. 16. Describe the two factors that can cause species to be diverse. • Genetic variation • Different environments 17. Describe the four factors some scientist use to support the theory of evolution. • • • • • Similar body structures, patterns of early development fossils Similar DNA 18. What are fossils? • The preserved remains or traces of an animal that lived in the past 19. What is a ligament? A ligament is a band of tissue that connects bones to bones. 20. Name the 5 functions of the skeletal system. • • • • • Support Protects internal organs Makes blood Stores minerals Allows movement 21. Name the 5 types of joints and state which one provides the greatest range of motion •Hinge •Ball and socket – greatest range of motion •Gliding •Immovable •pivot 22. Where do you find ball and socket joints. • Hips and shoulders D. Ball and Socket Joint Ball like surface of bone 1 fits into cuplike depression of bone 2 • Found in hip, shoulder • Greatest range of motion 23. Where do you find hinge joints in your body? • • • • Elbow Knee Fingers Toes E. Hinge Joint Convex surface of bone 1 fits into concave surface of bone 2 Movement is in one plane Examples : elbow, knee, fingers, toes 21. Describe the 5 types of joints found in the body. A. Immovable Joint No movement B. Gliding Joint Examples: wrist, ankles, vertebrae C. Pivot Joint Pivot joint Rotation of the head on the spine 24. Which type of tissue can contract or shorten? • Muscle tissue 25. Describe the most important function vital to all cells that happens in the capillaries. Oxygen and food to pass into cells and CO2 and waste are removed 26. State all the parts of the circulatory system •Heart •Blood vessels-arteries, capillaries, and veins •Blood 27. Explain the purpose of valves in the heart and in the veins. •They keep blood from flowing backwards. 28. What body system generates blood pressure and contractions of the heart. • Circulatory System 29. What is the function of platelets? • To help clot the blood. 30. What is the main function of white blood cells? • To fight disease, viruses and bacteria. 31. What happens to your pulse rate if your heart starts beating faster? • Your pulse beats faster also. 32. Define arteries and state which one is the largest. • Arteries carry blood away from the heart. • The aorta is the largest artery. 33. Where is pollen produced and what does it contain? Pollen is produced by the anther and contains the sperm. 34. What is Pollination? • Pollination is the process by which pollen gets from the male anther to the female pistil. • Pollination is complete when a pollen grain, carried by air or an animal, lands on the sticky tip of the pistil called the stigma. 35. Name all the parts of a flower that are responsible for reproduction.• Stamen• Pistil-Stigma, Style and ovary Anther and filament • Pollen 36. Where are the eggs produced? • Eggs are produced in the ovules inside the ovary. ` 37. 2. Pistil – Female Part B. Anther 1. StamenMale part A. Filament C. Stigma D. Style 1C Pollen E. Ovary 4. Petal F. Sepal 38. Where in the flower does fertilization take place? • In the ovules inside the ovary. 39 Put the path of sound through the ear in order. Eardrum, ear canal, pinna, hammer, stirrup, anvil, cochlea, auditory nerve • Pinna, ear canal, eardrum, hammer, anvil, stirrup, cochlea, auditory nerve, brain 40. What structure is at the end of the ear canal? • The eardrum 41. Match the part of the ear with its function. • Outer Ear-Captures sound • Middle Ear-Amplifies sound • Inner Ear- Changes sound to electrical messages to send to the brain 42. What structure in the middle ear pushes on the cochlea and creates waves • The Stirrup 43. What are the male and female sex cells called? • Sperm and egg 44. What is the purpose of the placenta? • A tissue attached to the uterus that links the developing embryo to the mother. • It is where food, oxygen, carbon dioxide and waste are exchanged. 45. Describe the umbilical cord and three of its functions? • A ropelike structure that connects the baby and the mother through the placenta that • Carries food to the fetus • Carries oxygen to the fetus • Carries waste away from the fetus 16b. What is a homologous structure? • A homologous structure is a similar body structure believed to be inherited from a common ancestor.