Egypt Power point Review

What was life like during the Middle Kingdom?
During the Middle Kingdom period of the Egyptian Empire the people prospered. It was considered a golden age
of stability because a new dynasty came to power after 200 years of confusion and battles among the nobles. This
new dynasty moved the capital to Thebes from the old capital of Memphis. The Middle Kingdom lasted from about
2050 BCE to 1670 BCE.
Why did the Egyptians have a
“Drive for More Land”?
Increased amount of land that could be
farmed and built canal between the Nile
and Red Sea in order to create farmland
Soldiers captured Nubia and attacked
modern day Syria
Conquered people sent tribute* or
payment to Egyptian pharaoh, Egypt got
rich from these payments
Pharaohs added more waterways and
dams everywhere they could to create
farmland and grow more crops
More crops=surplus=time to create art,
architecture and goods
*tribute- forced payment from conquered people to pharaoh
How did the “Arts Blossom” during the Middle
Painters covered walls of tombs and
temples with colorful scenes of
deities and daily life
Sculptors created large wall
carvings and statues of pharaohs
showing them as ordinary people,
not godlike figures
Poets wrote love songs and tributes
to pharaohs
New form of architecture – tombs
cut into cliffs west of Nile River –
the Valley of the Kings
Who Were the Hyksos?
Hyksos – people from western Asia who
attacked Egypt.
– Mighty warriors; crossed desert in
horse-drawn chariots and used weapons
made of bronze and iron.
– Egyptians were no match for them, they
ruled Egypt for 120 years
– Egyptian prince Ahmose* led an uprising
that drove Hyksos out of Egypt
* first ruler of Egypt’s New Kingdom- 1550BCE to
1080 BCE
The Egyptian Empire: What was life like in
The New Kingdom?`
• The New Kingdom
ushered in a period
where Egypt acquired
new territory and
• Ahmose’s reign began
the New Kingdom, the
period when Egypt
reached the height of
its ancient glory
Who was the woman ruler of Egypt during
the New Kingdom?
Queen Hatshepsut ruled with her husband, then nephew and then made herself pharaoh –
one of few woman to rule Egypt. She reigned from 1503 BCE to 1482 BCE.
She focused on trade along east coast of Africa – exchanged beads, metal, tools and weapons
for gold, ivory, ebony and incense*
Great need for wood; few trees in the Nile so Egyptian traders went to eastern
Mediterranean where the Phoenicians were famous for their wooden furniture
Trading brought great wealth to Egypt – Hatshepsut used some of wealth to build
monuments. One of greatest projects was huge temple and tomb in Valley of Kings
*Incense- a material burned for its pleasant smell
How did Thutmose III further expand the
Egyptian empire?
Armies expanded Egypt’s borders north
to Euphrates River in Mesopotamia and
moved south to regain control of Nubia;
Empire grew rich from trade and tribute;
Egypt claimed gold, copper, ivory and
other valuables
Enslaved many prisoners of war who
rebuilt Thebes, filling the city with
beautiful palaces, temples and
Slavery became common; slaves did
have rights to own land, marry and
eventually be granted freedom
The Egyptian Empire: The Legacies of Two Pharaohs• Akhenaton tried to change the
religion from one of polytheism- a
belief in many gods, to
monotheism- the belief in one god;
in this case Aton.
• King Tut is famous for the treasures
found in his tomb by archeologist
Howard Carter in 1922 in the Valley
of the Kings.
Who was known as the religious reformer
of the Egyptian empire?
• Amanhotep IV came to throne in 1370 BC; tried to lead Egypt in new
direction with help of wife, Nefertiti
• Amanhotep realized priests were gaining power at expense of pharaoh;
Introduced new religion in which only one god, Aton, was to be worshiped
– As priests resisted change, he removed many from their positions,
seized their lands, closed temples
– Changed his name to Akhenaton, “Spirit of Aton” and ruled from a
new city
• The people refused to accept Aton as only god.
• He became so devoted to religion that he neglected duties as pharaohEgypt lost most of its land in western Asia
Who do we call “The Boy King”?
• Tutankhamen -“King Tut”
took over the throne when
Akhenaton- died at 19
• Tut was only 10 years old
and relied on help from
palace officials and priest
who convinced him to
restore old religion
• British archaeologist,
Howard Carter, found his
tomb in AD 1922 which
contained the king’s
mummy and treasures
including gold mask. This is
unique as most royal tombs
were looted
Who was Egypt’s last great New Kingdom
Ramses II was one of most
effective pharaohs; reigned for
66 years
Built a temple at Abu Simbel
Egyptian armies regained lands
and Ramses launched ambitious
building program (new temples)
Why Were Temples Built?
Most magnificent was
Karnak at Thebes
Temples did not hold
services, most Egyptians
prayed at home, the
Temples were houses for
the gods and goddesses
Priests and priestesses
performed daily temple
rituals like washing
statues of deities and
bringing them food
Temples served as banks
– used to store valuable
What contributed to Egypt’s
“Decline and Fall”?
• Power began to decline after Ramses II died in his 90’s
• Groups from eastern Mediterranean attacked Egypt by sea,
using strong iron weapons, Egyptians had similar arms, but
had to pay a lot for it because they did not have iron ore
• By 1150 BCE– Egyptians only controlled the Nile delta
• Came under rule of one outside group after another, first
conquered by Libyans, Then conquered by Kush, Then taken
over by Assyrians
Who’s Who and What’s What in Ancient Egypt
Who is?:
• Ahmose- first ruler of Egypt’s New Kingdom (1550 BCE – 1080 BCE)
• Hatshepsut- female pharaoh who avoided military conquests and expanded the
economy of Egypt
• Thutmose III - Hatshepsut’s nephew, his armies expanded Egypt, slavery was
common and the empire grew rich from trade and tribute
• Akenhaton- changed the religion from polytheistic to monotheistic, angered many
people, lost lands and shrunk empire
• Tutankamen- famous for his tomb of riches found by Howard Carter in 1922
• Ramses II- built temples, regained land and rebuilt the empire
What is?:
• Tribute- forced payment from conquered people
• Incense- a material burned for its pleasant smell
• Thebes- capital of Egypt’s Middle Kingdom
Things that make you go hmmmm.
Describe Egyptian trade during the rule of Hatshepsut.
Egyptians sailed along the coast of east Africa trading beads, metal tools,
and weapons for gold, ivory, ebony and incense. Egyptians also went to Phoenicia to
trade for wood. The increased trade brought wealth to Egypt.
How did architecture change during the Middle Kingdom?
Instead of building pyramids, pharaohs built their tombs into the sides of
cliffs west of the Nile River. This area became known as the Valley of the Kings.
Who were the Hyksos?
The Hyksos were people from western Asia who attacked Egypt. They
defeated the Egyptians and ruled Egypt for 120 years, from 1670 BCE to 1550 BCE.
In what ways are hieroglyphics and computer icons similar?
They are both pictures that stand for (represent) words. However,
hieroglyphics involved hundreds of symbols understood mostly by scribes while
millions of everyday people use and understand computer icons.
Things that make you go hmmmm.
Why did ancient Egyptians first value cats?
Cats protected valuable grade supplies from mice and rats.
With what goddess did the ancient Egyptians associate cats?
Cats were associated with the goddess Bastet.
Why is Tutankhamen so famous today?
His tomb was found intact with its ancient treasure.
What groups conquered Egypt starting in the 900s BCE?
The Libyans, People of Kush and the Assyrians.
What three improvements did the Middle Kingdom rulers make?
They added more waterways and dams for irrigation, increased the amount of land used for
farming, and built a canal between the Nile River and the Red Sea, they also improved art and