Psyc 222 Developmental Psychology II Unit 4: EARLY ADULTHOOD Social and Emotional Development Dean Owen, Ph.D., LPCC Spring 2011 Essential Terms Emerging Adulthood A relatively new term used to refer to the prolonged and transitional period extending from the late teens to the mid twenties. Prolonged identity development Encourages exploration of life alternatives Causes: Increased education for entry into occupations Gains in economic prosperity Reduced need for labor Globalization Emerging Adulthood An extended transitional period recognized in many modern and developed countries in which the assumption of full adult roles and responsibilities does not occur until the mid twenties. Such individuals enjoy relative independence from parents but are not yet ready to enter professions, hence this early adult period without adult responsibility provides many opportunities for exploration. High SES Prolonged education Delayed career entry Delayed Marriage Delayed Parenthood. Low SES ?? ?? ?? ?? Resilience Emerging adulthood provides an extended period during which resilience can be developed….but just what is “Resilience” Or High functioning People Resilience Resilience can be described as the ability: •To recover relatively quickly from events or situations which interrupt normal psychological functioning •To regain a stability after a psychological insult •To return to a normal state of affairs following trauma, difficulty, tragedy, loss, or other personal or social stressors or health stressors. •To "bouncing back" from difficult experiences. •Successful adaptation despite challenging and threatening circumstances… Masten, Best, & Garmezy, 1990 Positive Traits Buffers against mental illness Courage Forgiveness Interpersonal skill Originality Faith Work Ethic Work ethic Connectedness Hope Capacity for love and vocation Honesty Responsibility Perseverance Altruism Optimism Moderation Autonomy Tolerance Resilience Resilient individuals typically utilize a set of skills and resources that allow them to deal effectively with stress. Dispositional attributes •effective social skills •Courage •optimism Family/Social/Relational attributes •Connectedness to parents/friends Environmental attributes •Community involvement •Presence of caring others Resilience The resilience and recovery trajectory Resilience Research demonstrates that among both children and adults, the ability to recover from trauma and psychological insult is remarkably widespread. Individuals seem to be able to cope with difficulty and adversity in their lives through a combination of personal characteristics and mutual support from family, friends and the greater community. Resilience Events that will threaten and challenge us are likely to occur throughout our lives. Being resilient does not protect you from these events but provides the foundation for effective response when such challenges arise. Resilience Much time and effort has been spent to determine if resilience is a trait or state. In my opinion this is a ridiculous question! As a psychologist I MUST believe that it is a state, otherwise I’ll have to go into another kind of work! Resilience Resilience is built of attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors and all can be learned or strengthened! Resilience Resilient Individuals 1. have good relationships with friends and family; 2. possess innate optimism; 3. possess self-confidence /self-efficacy; 4. are decisive; 5. are goal oriented; 6. are persistent; 7. possess high frustration tolerance; 8. are able to accept the past; 9. are realistic; 10. are able to attend to needs and feelings. Resilient Individuals Using their skills, abilities and with confidence they change the things they can change, • •They accept the things they cannot change, and •They seem to know the difference. Factors in Resilience Targets for client intervention Connectedness: Resilient individuals have close and supportive relationships with friends and family. These relationships provide: •Love and trust •Encouragement •Reassurance •Opportunities for reality checks Factors in Resilience Targets for client intervention Resilient individuals have good decision-making skills Factors in Resilience Targets for client intervention They tend to be goal-directed with a realistic view or the world. Factors in Resilience Targets for client intervention Self-Esteem Self-Acceptance Self-Efficacy Factors in Resilience Learning From Your Past Taking an inventory of past events and successes… •What events have been most stressful for me? What were the effects? •What strategies have been used in the past? •What have I learned about myself and my interactions with others during difficult times? •Have I been able to overcome obstacles, and if so, how? •What has helped make me feel more hopeful about the future? Maintaining cognitive and behavioral flexibility Resilience involves maintaining flexibility and balance in your life as you deal with stressful and challenging events. Letting yourself experience strong emotions, and also realizing when you may need to avoid experiencing them at times in order to continue functioning. Stepping forward and taking action to deal with your problems and meet the demands of daily living, and also stepping back to get some distance. Spending time with loved ones and giving yourself time alone. Relying on others, and also relying on yourself Enhancing Resilience Promoting Connectedness This involves two areas: Reaching out to touch others Letting others touch you. Enhancing Resilience Accept that change is a part of living. Certain goals may no longer be attainable as a result of adverse situations. Accepting circumstances that cannot be changed can help you focus on circumstances that you can alter. Erikson’s Theory Stage 6: Intimacy vs Isolation Making a commitment to an intimate partner. A secure personal identity promotes the ability to enter into an intimate relationship. You cannot love someone else until you can love and accept yourself. Daniel Levinson Graduated from Yale University Psychologist Author of a comprehensive theory of Adult Development….as depicted in SEASONS OF A MAN’S LIFE Daniel Levinson SEASONS OF A WOMAN’S LIFE Daniel Levinson Central Idea: Life structure The life structure is the underlying or basic pattern of one’s life and is composed primarily of two components: Family Work Other influences are religion, culture, social status and gender….. Daniel Levinson There are 6 stages of adulthood in Levinson's theory titled "Seasons of a Man's Life": 1) Early adult transition (17-22) - leave adolescence, make preliminary choices for adult life 2) Entering the adult world (22-28) - make initial choices in love, occupation, friendship, values, lifestyle 3) Age 30 transition (28-33) - changes occur in life structure, either a moderate change or, more often, a severe and stressful crisis 4) Settling down (33-40) - establish a niche in society, progress on a timetable, in both family and career accomplishments; are expected to think and behave like a parent so they are facing more demanding roles and expectations. Daniel Levinson 5) Mid-life transition (40-45) - life structure comes into question, usually a time of crisis in the meaning, direction, and value of each person's life. neglected parts of the self (talents, desires, aspirations) seek expression. Men are seen more as parents than as “brothers” to other men who are somewhat younger than them and this message comes as an irritation at first. Also at this time, men becoming increasingly aware of death and they are reminded of how short life really is. They become involved in trying to leave a legacy and this usually forms the core of the second half of his life. 6) Entering middle adulthood (45-50) - choices must be made, a new life structure formed. person must commit to new tasks. * Some sources also stated that there was a late adulthood stage during which time a man spent time reflecting on past achievements and regrets, and making peace with one's self and others (including God). Daniel Levinson Levinson portrayed adult life as a series of periods….each with a transition phase and a stable phase. In each of these periods young people must revise their life structure. Men create life structures primarily built around career. Women create life structures primarily built around both career and family. Early adult transition 17-22 Entering the adult world 22-28 Age 30 Transition 28-33 Settling Down 33-40 Mid-life Transition 40-45 Entering Middle Adulthood 45-50 Daniel Levinson Problems with Levinson's theory: Daniel Levinson collected the data for his study many decades ago, shortly after the Great Depression ended. Due to the time period, the men used for this study have 3 things in common: 1) they come from stable families 2) they had realistic goals for their life 3) became adults in an expanding economy Men who have grown up in the last four or five decades , however, have had to deal with less stable families due to high divorce rates, and they tend to have goals which are much more difficult to achieve. They have also had to deal with a fluctuating economy, and because of these differences it is difficult to apply Levinson's studies to today's generation. Vaillant Redefined Erikson’s theory Twenties: focus is on intimacy Thirties: Career Consolidation Forties: Generativity Fifties & Sixties: Keepers of Meaning. Guardians of Cultural Social clock Age graded expectations for major life events Employment Marriage Birth of first child Purchasing a home Retirement Conformity or departure from the expectations can be both a major source of personality change and stress for young adults. Your Perfect Mate Take a few minutes and describe in detail the qualities and characteristics of your perfect life partner. Triangular theory of Love (Sternberg) Intimacy Emotional Passion Physical-psychological arousal Commitment Cognitive Passionate Love Intense sexual attraction Companionate Love Warm trusting affection and caregiving Questions or comments ??