# Latitude and Longitude 1

```Typical Graph
This is an example
of a typical graph we
are all familiar with.
up of different
“points” with lines
that connect
the points.
Typical Graph
Each point has
two values:
The “X” value
that runs along
the
horizontal “X”
axis
Y axis
X axis
The “Y” value
that runs along
the
vertical “Y”
axis
Typical Graph
Y
(3,8)
(9,5)
X value is
always stated first
Followed by the
Y value
The “origin” is
the point where
the 2 axes
intersect with a
X
value of (0,0)
(0,0)
A point can also
have negative
(-) values
Typical Graph
Y
(-X,+Y)
(+X,+Y)
(0,0)
X
(-X,-Y)
(+X,-Y)
Negative X
values are to the
left
of the origin
(0,0)
Negative Y
values are below
the
origin
East West, North South on The Earth
Let the X axis be the
Equator.
Y
Let the Y axis be the
Prime Meridian
that runs through
X
Greenwich outside
of London.
Lat/Long are the 2
grid points by
which you can locate
any point on
earth.
East West, North South on the Earth
N
W
S
Let each of
the four
quarters then
be designated
E
by North or
South and
East or West.
East West, North South on the Earth
(N, W)
(S, W)
(N, E)
(S, E)
The N tells us
we’re north of the
Equator. The S tells
us we’re south of
the Equator.
The E tells us that
we’re east of the
Prime Meridian. The
W tells us that
we’re west of the
Prime Meridian.
East West, North South on the Earth
(N, W)
Prime Meridian
That means all
points in North
America will have
a North latitude and
a West longitude
because it is North
of the Equator and
West of the Prime
Meridian.
East West, North South on the Earth
What would be
the latitude and
longitude
directions in
Australia?
Prime Meridian
If you said South and East , you’re right!
Latitude is the
What is Latitude? distance from the
equator along the Y
axis.
90&deg;N
All points along the
equator have a value
of 0 degrees latitude.
Y
X
North pole = 90&deg;N
South pole = 90&deg;S
90&deg;S
Values are
expressed in terms of
degrees.
What is Latitude?
90&deg;N
Y
X
90&deg;S
Each degree
of latitude is
divided into
60 minutes.
Each minute
is divided into
60 seconds.
This is also true of longitude.
What is Latitude?
90&deg;N
For Example:
Y
37&deg;, 02’,51’’N
X
90&deg;S
This is close
to the latitude
where you live.
What is Longitude?
Longitude is the
distance from the
prime meridian along
the X axis.
Y
All points along the
prime meridian have a
X
value of 0 degrees
longitude.
180&deg;W
180&deg;E
The earth is divided
into two parts, or
hemispheres, of
east and west
longitude.
What is Longitude?
The earth is
divided into 360
equal slices
(meridians)
Y
X
180&deg;W
180&deg;E
180 west and
180 east of the
prime meridian
What is Latitude?
90&deg;N
Our latitude
and longitude
might be:
Y
X
37&deg;, 03’,13’’N
76&deg;, 29’, 45’’W
90&deg;S
The
origin
So Where is (0,0)?
point (0,0) is
where the
equator
intersects the
prime
meridian.
(0,0) is off the
western coast
of Africa in the
Atlantic Ocean.
See If You Can Tell In Which
Quarter These Lon/Lats Are
Located
1. 41&deg;N, 21&deg;E
2. 37&deg;N, 76&deg;W
A
B
C
D 4. 7&deg;S, 23&deg;W
3. 72&deg;S, 141&deg;W
5. 15&deg;N, 29&deg;E
6. 34&deg;S, 151&deg;E
1. B
2. A
3. C
4. C
5. B
6. D
See if you can
find those same
latitude/longitude
locations on a
map!
Positioning on the Earth’s Surface
East is the direction of
rotation of the Earth
North Pole
Prime Meridian
Latitude: (90oN to 90oS)
Longitude: (180oE to 180oW)
0o Longitude
Tropic of Cancer
21st June
22nd Sept
20th March
Equator
22nd December
Tropic of Capricorn
Longitude 90o West
Longitude 60o West
Longitude 30o West
Latitude 23&frac12;o North
oE
90
60o90
30
30
60
90
Wo
o
66&frac12;23&frac12;
o
900
23&frac12;o
Latitude 0o
Latitude 23&frac12;o South
Longitude 90oEast
Longitude 60o East
Longitude 30o East
South Pole
Latitude and Longitude together enable the fixing of position on the Earth’s surface.