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Typical Graph This is an example of a typical graph we are all familiar with. The graph is made up of different “points” with lines that connect the points. Typical Graph Each point has two values: The “X” value that runs along the horizontal “X” axis Y axis X axis The “Y” value that runs along the vertical “Y” axis Typical Graph Y (3,8) (9,5) X value is always stated first Followed by the Y value The “origin” is the point where the 2 axes intersect with a X value of (0,0) (0,0) A point can also have negative (-) values Typical Graph Y (-X,+Y) (+X,+Y) (0,0) X (-X,-Y) (+X,-Y) Negative X values are to the left of the origin (0,0) Negative Y values are below the origin East West, North South on The Earth Let the X axis be the Equator. Y Let the Y axis be the Prime Meridian that runs through X Greenwich outside of London. Lat/Long are the 2 grid points by which you can locate any point on earth. East West, North South on the Earth N W S Let each of the four quarters then be designated E by North or South and East or West. East West, North South on the Earth (N, W) (S, W) (N, E) (S, E) The N tells us we’re north of the Equator. The S tells us we’re south of the Equator. The E tells us that we’re east of the Prime Meridian. The W tells us that we’re west of the Prime Meridian. East West, North South on the Earth (N, W) Prime Meridian That means all points in North America will have a North latitude and a West longitude because it is North of the Equator and West of the Prime Meridian. East West, North South on the Earth What would be the latitude and longitude directions in Australia? Prime Meridian If you said South and East , you’re right! Latitude is the What is Latitude? distance from the equator along the Y axis. 90°N All points along the equator have a value of 0 degrees latitude. Y X North pole = 90°N South pole = 90°S 90°S Values are expressed in terms of degrees. What is Latitude? 90°N Y X 90°S Each degree of latitude is divided into 60 minutes. Each minute is divided into 60 seconds. This is also true of longitude. What is Latitude? 90°N For Example: Y 37°, 02’,51’’N X 90°S This is close to the latitude where you live. What is Longitude? Longitude is the distance from the prime meridian along the X axis. Y All points along the prime meridian have a X value of 0 degrees longitude. 180°W 180°E The earth is divided into two parts, or hemispheres, of east and west longitude. What is Longitude? The earth is divided into 360 equal slices (meridians) Y X 180°W 180°E 180 west and 180 east of the prime meridian What is Latitude? 90°N Our latitude and longitude might be: Y X 37°, 03’,13’’N 76°, 29’, 45’’W 90°S The origin So Where is (0,0)? point (0,0) is where the equator intersects the prime meridian. (0,0) is off the western coast of Africa in the Atlantic Ocean. See If You Can Tell In Which Quarter These Lon/Lats Are Located 1. 41°N, 21°E 2. 37°N, 76°W A B C D 4. 7°S, 23°W 3. 72°S, 141°W 5. 15°N, 29°E 6. 34°S, 151°E 1. B 2. A 3. C 4. C 5. B 6. D See if you can find those same latitude/longitude locations on a map! Positioning on the Earth’s Surface East is the direction of rotation of the Earth North Pole Prime Meridian Latitude: (90oN to 90oS) Longitude: (180oE to 180oW) 0o Longitude Tropic of Cancer 21st June 22nd Sept 20th March Equator 22nd December Tropic of Capricorn Longitude 90o West Longitude 60o West Longitude 30o West Latitude 23½o North oE 90 60o90 30 30 60 90 Wo o 66½23½ o 900 23½o Latitude 0o Latitude 23½o South Longitude 90oEast Longitude 60o East Longitude 30o East South Pole Latitude and Longitude together enable the fixing of position on the Earth’s surface. Now you’re ready to find some locations on a map!