Chapter 4 Business Research Process (Steps 1-3) References: Business Research Book of VU Research Methods For Business (Uma Sekaran) APA Manual (6th Edition) Resource Person: Furqan-ul-haq Siddiqui The Business Research Process Theoretical Framework Observation 1 Broad problem area Preliminary Data Gathering 2 Problem definition 3 4 Variables Identification and labelling Report Presentation Report Writing Scientific Research Design Data Collection, analysis & interpretation NO Decision Making Generation of Hypothesis 5 Yes Deduction Research Question Answered? "Well begun is half done.“ (Aristotle) Choosing an interesting research topic is your first challenge. 1. Observation/Broad Problem Area The process begins when a researcher observes a problem/issue/opportunity/ change or a researcher selects an area for research. The broad problem area refers to the entire situation where one sees a possible need for research and problem solving. Broad problem area of study or issue may be HR, finance, crime, social issues or marketing etc. 1. 2. 3. 4. The specific issues that need to be researched within the situation may not be identified at this stage. Such issues might pertain to Problem currently existing in an organization that needs to be solved Areas that manager thinks need to be improved Conceptual or theoretical frame work to understand some phenomena Answer empirically of some questions or to determine relationships Broad Problem Area Examples , A manager/student could observe the following in the workplace: Training programs are perhaps are not as effective as were anticipated. The sale volume of a product is not picking up. Minority groups are not making career progress in organizations. Broad Problem Area • • • The broad problem area would be narrowed down to specific issues for investigation after some preliminary data This may take the form of interviews and library research. Its suggested to use funnel approach for narrowing down the topic. 2. Preliminary Data Collection 1. 2. 3. Nature of data to be collected The nature of information that would be needed by the researcher for the purpose could be classified under three headings. Background information of the organization (secondary data) Managerial philosophy, company policies, and other structural aspects Perception, attitudes, and behavioral response of the organizational member and client systems (if applicable) primary data. 1. Background Information on the Organization The origin and history of the company - when it was started, rate of growth, ownership and control and so on. Size-, in terms of employees, or assets or both. Location - regional, national or other. Resource - human and other. Charter - purpose and ideology Interdependent relationships with other institutions and the external environment. Financial position. 2. Information on Management Philosophy and Structural Factors Employees role & position at each organizational level. Extent of specialization. Communication channels. Control systems. Coordination & Span of control Reward systems. Workflow systems and the like. 3. Employees Perception, Attitudes, and Behavioral Responses towards their organization Workflow interdependence. Rewards provided by the organization such as pay and fringe benefits. Growth opportunities Participation in decision making. Companies tolerance regarding taking time off the job by employees Autonomy Co-workers These factors help researcher to determine employees loyalty, performance, absenteeism, turnover, performance intensions etc. REVIEW OF LITERATURE Because: - Knowledge accumulates. - We learn from and build on what others have done. Researchers read other people’s research. They learn, compare, replicate, or critically analyze the work by others. Literature Survey Literature survey is the documentation of a comprehensive review of the published and unpublished work from secondary sources of data The library is a rich storage base for secondary data, and researchers spend several weeks, and sometimes months, going through Books journals newspapers, magazines, conference proceedings, , Thesis/dissertations/synopsis & abstracts several government Publications financial marketing and other reports. Goals of Review of Literature 1. 2. 3. To demonstrate a familiarity with a body of knowledge and establish credibility. Demonstrates the researcher’s professional competence, ability, and background. To know the path of prior research and how a current research project is linked to it. To integrate and summarize what is known in an area A good review points out areas where prior studies agree, where they disagree, and where major questions remain unanswered. No reinventing the wheel. No wastage of effort. 4. 5. 6. To learn from others and stimulate new ideas. Researcher benefits from others efforts. Ready made techniques. Also difficulties. Replications to overcome previous limitations. Identification of variables. Important variables that are likely to influence the problem situation are not left out of the study. Helps in developing theoretical framework. Ready made theoretical models for research may be available. Previous studies provide evidence for developing theoretical argumentation for positing the relationship among variables. 7. Problem statement can be made with precision Review provides clarity of thought about the issue under study. Conducting the Literature Survey 1. 2. 3. It can be conducted in three steps. Identifying the relevant sources. Extracting the relevant information. Writing up the literature survey Organization of literature review A general organization looks like a funnel Broader topics Subtopics Studies like yours 19 Writing up the Literature Review The documentation of the relevant studies citing the author and the year of the study is called literature review or literature survey. The literature survey is a clear and logical presentation of the research work done thus for in the area of investigation. The purpose of literature survey is to identify and highlight the important variables, and to document the significant findings from earlier research that will serve as the foundation on which the subsequent theoretical framework for the current investigation can based and the hypothesis developed. Write the Review A literature review requires planning and good, clear writing, which requires lot of rewriting. What does a good review look like? The author should communicate a review’s purpose to the reader by its organization. The wrong way to write a review is to list a series of research reports with a summary of the findings of each. The right way to write a review is to organize common findings or arguments together. A well accepted approach is to address the most important ideas first, to logically link statements or findings, and to note discrepancies or weaknesses in the present. Making links between studies Agreements Similarly, author B points to… Likewise, author C makes the case that… Author D also makes this point… Again, it is possible to see how author E agrees with author D… Disagreements However, author B points to… On the other hand, author C makes the case that… Conversely, Author D argues… Nevertheless, what author E suggests… 22 Read the Material Closer Step 1: read the abstract Step 2: read introduction Focus on participants, measures, procedures Step 4: Evaluate results It explains why the study is important It provides review and evaluation of relevant literature Step 3: read Method with a close, critical eye Decide whether to read the article in detail Do the conclusions seem logical Can you detect any bias on the part of the researcher? Step 5: Take discussion with a grain of salt Edges are smoothed out Pay attention to limitations (Carroll, 2006) Copying and pasting text from internet Using photographs, video or audio without permission or acknowledgement Using another’s work and claiming it as your own even with permission Using your own work without properly citing it! Quoting a source without using quotation marks-even if you do cite it Citing sources you didn’t use Getting a research paper, story, poem, or article off the Internet Turning in the same paper for more than one class without the permission of both teachers (this is called self-plagiarism) Getting Started… What is a Citation? References and citations in text are the formal methods of acknowledging the use of a creator’s work. Is it Plagiarism? You read: "Students are studying about one-third as much as faculty say they ought to, to do well," said George D. Kuh, director of the survey and a professor of higher education at Indiana University at Bloomington. From: Young, Jeffrey R. Homework? What Homework? Chronicle of Higher Education, 49 (15).12/6/2002 Yes! You must credit your source if you paraphrase text. You write: Most students spend about one-third as much time studying as faculty say they should. Is it Plagiarism? You read: "Students are studying about onethird as much as faculty say they ought to, to do well," said George D. Kuh, director of the survey and a professor of higher education at Indiana University at Bloomington. From: Young, Jeffrey R. Homework? What Homework? Chronicle of Higher Education, 49 (15).12/6/2002 No. As long as you have included the Young article in your reference list, you have properly cited your source. You write: According to George D. Kuh, Indiana University at Bloomington, students study about one-third of the time that is expected by faculty. (Young, 2002) Is This Plagiarism? Copying a direct quotation into your paper, placing quotation marks around it, and crediting the source. NO! This is not plagiarism. How about this? Taking someone’s ideas or words, putting them into your own words, and crediting the source. NO! This is not plagiarism. It’s Paraphrasing! What is Paraphrasing? A paraphrase uses an author's idea, but expresses it in your own words, without the use of quotation marks. Just changing a few words from the original is plagiarism. Paraphrasing is permitted as long as you credit the source. When Should You Use Paraphrasing? When summarizing facts and ideas from a source Summarizing means to take ideas from a large passage of another source and condense them, using your own words When paraphrasing a source Paraphrasing means to use the ideas from another source but change the phrasing into your own words Examples of Paraphrasing The original passage: Students frequently overuse direct quotation [when] taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final [research] paper. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes. Lester, James D. Writing Research Papers. 2nd ed. (1976): 46-47 A legitimate paraphrase: In research papers students often quote excessively, failing to keep quoted material down to a desirable level. Since the problem usually originates during note taking, it is essential to minimize the material recorded verbatim (Lester 46-47). What is Quoting? A quotation uses exactly the same words and puts them in quotation marks. - If the quotation is more than 2 lines you should put it in a separate paragraph and indent it from both sides. “Leprosy was eradicated in the west by the end of medieval times” (Foucault 3). What is a Summary? A summary should contain the main points from the author's text. Don't forget to reference it with the author's family name, date of publication and page number. When Should I… …Paraphrase? …Quote? …Summarize? 1. The author’s words will be difficult for your reader to understand 1. Everything the author writes is important 1. Not all the author’s words are necessary e.g. If the author gives examples or explanations that you don’t need to put in your text 2. Your instructor wants to know if you understand the author correctly 2. The quotation will not make your text too long 2. If paraphrasing or quoting will make your text too long 3. You haven’t used many quotations already Common Knowledge Things that are considered “common knowledge” do not need to be cited. Examples: -Canadian Confederation began in the year 1867. -John A. Macdonald was Canada’s first Prime Minister. -William Shakespeare was born in England in the 16th Century. Why Use APA Format? Allows readers to crossreference your sources easily Provides consistent format within a discipline Gives you credibility as a writer Protects yourself from plagiarism The primary source of information regarding APA formatting should be the APA Manual (Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Sixth Edition) Who Should Use APA? • • • APA Style describes rules for the preparation of manuscripts for writers and students in: Social Sciences, such as Psychology, Linguistics, Sociology, Economics, and Criminology Business Nursing Before you adopt this style for your paper, you should check to see what citation style your discipline uses in its journals and for student research. If APA Style is appropriate for your writing project, then use this workshop to learn more about APA and how to follow its rules correctly in your own work. APA References Book Journal Article Please visit: http://www.citationmachine.net/ for automatically generating citations in MLA, APA, Chicago, Turabian, and Harvard style. 3. Problem Definition • • • • From broad to specific concern After having preliminary data gathering , the researcher is in a position to narrow down the problem from its original broad base and define the issue clearly. Present problem statement in clear and precise manner. Problem could be An existing business problem identified by the Manager Scope for future improvement Areas needing conceptual clarity Curiosity of the researcher Problem Definition A “problem” could simply indicate an interest in an issue where finding the right answers might help to improve an existing situation. A clear, precise and brief statement of the question or issue that is to be investigated with the goal of finding an answer or solution. Examples of well defined problems 1. To what extent do the structure of the organization and type of information systems installed account for the variance in the perceived effectiveness of managerial decisions? 2. What is the influence of information on price and quality on consumer evaluation of competing brands? 3. Does the income statement in the balance sheet elicit the same kinds of reader reactions toward the company as the cash flow statement? 4. Does better automation lead to greater asset investment for dollar of output? 6. Does international expansion result in an increase in the firm’s value. 7. What are the effects of downsizing on the long range growth pattern of companies? 9. What are the components of “quality of life”? 10. Effects of IMF lending upon Pakistan. 11. Effects of T&D in increasing employees contribution.