Bell Ringer
Take out your Agenda, Binder and
I will be checking to make sure that you
have all three items.
In your journal, title the first page:
Journal Entry 1
September 1, 2015
Answer the question on the board in the first
page of your journal.
Parts of Speech
A person, place, thing, or idea
A word that
takes the
place of a
noun or
proper noun.
A word that describes a noun
An action or a state of being
A word that describes a Verb
(Almost ALWAYS ends in –ly)
Ran Quickly
Thought Deeply
Examined Carefully
Synonyms are words that have similar
Small, tiny, minuscule, miniature
Antonyms are words that have opposite
A word
used to
Sentence Structure
Independent Clause
Independent Clause
A phrase that can stand alone as
a sentence (complete thought)
She went to the store.
He bought a new book.
Dependent Clause
Dependent Clause
A phrase that cannot stand alone
and depends on another phrase for
Because I forgot my homework, I
was sent home.
Sentence Structure
Simple Sentence
A phrase containing a subject and a
The topic of the sentence
What the subject is or is doing
Compound Sentences
Compound Sentence
A sentence with at least two independent clauses
conjoined by a conjunction.
She believed in fairy tales when she was younger,
but she enjoys reading fairy tales now.
Complex Sentence
Complex Sentence
A sentence with one independent clause
and at least one dependent clause
When she was younger, she believed in fairy
Topic Sentence
Supporting Sentence 1
Supporting Sentence 2
Supporting Sentence 3
Transitional Sentence/Concluding
Figurative Language
Is language used in imaginative ways to
express ideas that are not literally true
 Figurative Language can be found in literature and poetry where the
writing appeals to the senses. It can do this by giving a word with a specific
meaning or connotation, by comparing two things in such a way that you
find the comparison interesting or by using words that have unusual
constructions or sounds.
 Examples include: similes, metaphors, hyperboles, personification,
symbolism, onomatopoeia, idioms, and alliteration
A simile compares two things using the
words “like” or “as.” Examples include:
 busy as a bee
 clean as a whistle
 brave as a lion
 stand out like a sore thumb
 as dry as a bone
 they fought like cats and dogs
 like watching grass grow
A metaphor is a comparison between two
things or ideas to create an intended effect.
It only makes sense when the similarities between the two things become apparent
or someone understands the connection.
Examples include:
 you are a couch potato
 time is money
 he has a heart of stone
 America is a melting pot
 you are my sunshine
A Hyperbole is an outrageous
exaggeration that emphasizes a point,
and can be ridiculous or funny.
Hyperboles can be added to fiction to add color and depth to a
Examples are:
 You snore louder than a freight train.
 I had to walk 15 miles to school in the snow, uphill.
 You could have knocked me over with a feather.
Personification gives human characteristics
to inanimate objects, animals, or ideas.
This can really affect the way the reader imagines things. This is used in children’s
books, poetry, and fictional literature.
Examples include:
 opportunity knocked on the door
 the sun greeted me this morning
 the sky was full of dancing stars
 the vines wove their fingers together to form a braid
 the radio stopped singing and stared at me
 the sun played hide and seek with the clouds
Symbolism occurs when a word which has
meaning in itself but is used to represent
something entirely different.
Examples are:
 Using an image of the American flag to represent patriotism and a love
for one’s country
 Using an apple pie to represent an American lifestyle
 Using an apple to represent education
Alliteration is a repetition of the first
consonant sounds in several words.
A good example would be:
 wide-eyed and wondering while we wait for others to waken
Or tongue twisters like:
 Betty bought butter but the butter was bitter, so Betty bought better butter
to make the bitter butter better.
Onomatopoeia is the use of words that
sound like their meaning, or mimic sounds.
Here are some examples:
 the burning wood hissed and crackled
 the words: beep, whirr, click, whoosh, swish, zap, zing, ping, clang, bong,
hum, boom, munch, gobble, crunch, POW, smash, wham, quack, meow,
oink, and tweet.
An idiom is used to express a different
meaning beyond the literal understanding
of the phrase.
Examples Include:
 Kick the bucket
 Raining cats and dogs
 She is pulling my leg
Commas are Important!
Quotation Marks
 “I really enjoyed this book,” Sally exclaimed.
 Sally exclaimed, “I really enjoyed this book!”
 “My mother said, ‘Make sure to eat your vegetables or you won’t grow big
and strong,’” warned Sally.
 Sally’s (apostrophe “s”)
 You are = You’re
 Jess’ (name ends in “s” just
add apostrophe)
 It is = It’s
 Yours (no apostrophe)
 Its (no apostrophe)
 Do not = Don’t
 Will not = Won’t
 Can not = Can’t or Cannot