How were Welles’ actions on 9/11 symbolic of American values and beliefs? His acts were selfless He sacrificed He exercised extreme bravery and courage His first thought was the safety and well-being of others How do sociologists research society? Why do they use different methods? What are the positives and negatives of these methods? The scientific method provides an open, sound and orderly way of collecting first-hand info. It allows scientists to arrive at reasoned conclusions. It prevents researchers from their own values and beliefs interfering in the process. Researchers use careful and correct thinking. Lastly it allows researchers to carry out research in a thoughtful, organized and careful manner. 1 – Define the problem. 2 – Review the literature. 3 – Form a hypothesis. 4 – Choose a research design. 5 – Collect the data. 6 – Analyze the data. 7 – Present your conclusion. Surveys Analysis of Existing Sources Observational Studies Experiments Statistical Analysis Sociologists study cause and effect relationships. They examine variables - features that can differ from one individual, group or situation. 2 types of variables, independent and dependent. Independent variable causes change in another variable. (Something that causes another thing to change). Dependent variables are changed by an independent variables. Correlation - is when a change in one variable is connected to a change in another variable. Correlations can be positive or negative. In positive correlations the variables rise together. Example: Cigarette smoking goes up – Lung cancer rates go up. Example: You get a raise at work and you spend more money. In negative correlations the variables change in opposite directions. One goes up, the other goes down. Example: You spend more time working and your grades go down. Example: As you get older you need less sleep. Why use a survey? It allows sociologists to collect data an attitudes and opinions from large groups of people. You can cover large areas and populations in a shorter period of time. 2 common types of survey The Questionnaire – list of questions or statements to which people respond in writing. What are some of the disadvantages of surveys? Don’t know if you are interpreting the responses correctly. People can lie. Take the survey. Critique it: Is it good? Why? Why not? An interview is another example of the survey method. Interviews allow the interviewer to better determine if the interviewee is being truthful. Clarification is easier and you can pick up on context clues. You survey a sample or small percentage of the population. What are some disadvantages of the interview? Time consuming. Expensive The Historical Method is a popular technique used by sociologists. You study any materials from the past that have info you’re interests you. It allows researchers to compare the past to the present. Content analysis is another method used. It requires the researcher to count the number of times an idea, word, phrase, event or symbol is used in a text. Content analysis is easy to use and inexpensive. In experiments we gather information under controlled conditions. Experiments can very tricky and difficult to conduct in sociology. People often change their behavior when they know they are being studied. Participant Observation is when researchers become directly involved in the situation they are investigating. Sometimes they make their presence known. Sometimes they remain anonymous. A case study is an intensive analysis of person, group, event or problem. Case studies provide pictures of real-life situations. They are useful in studying temporary events like, natural disasters, revolutions, riots…. What is the researcher studying? What challenges does the method he chose to use, participant observation, pose for him?