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CHAPTER 25:
LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND FINANCE
Section 2: Cities and Metropolitan Areas
TLW: Develop an understanding of city planning and
leadership of local government.
OBJECTIVES
Concept 3: Functions of Government: Laws and policies are
developed to govern, protect, and promote the well-being of the
people.
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Analyze the functions of government as defined in the Preamble to the
Constitution.
Examine various sources of government funding: federal—income tax, duties ,
excise taxes, corporate tax state—income tax, sales tax local—property tax,
sales tax
Describe the regulatory functions of government pertaining to consumer
protection, environment, health, labor, transportation, and communication.
Describe the factors and processes that determine major domestic policies
(e.g., Social Security, education, health care, parks, environmental protection).
CHAPTER VOCABULARY
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Incorporation
Charter
Mayor-council government
Strong-mayor government
Weak-mayor government
Commission government
Council-manager government
Zoning
Metropolitan area
SEC. 2: CITIES AND
METROPOLITAN AREAS
• Incorporation
• Charter
• Mayor-council government
• Strong-mayor government
• Weak-mayor government
• Commission government
• Council-manager government
• Zoning
• Metropolitan area
HOW HAS AMERICA SHIFTED FROM A RURAL BASED
SOCIETY TO AN URBAN BASED SOCIETY?
1790
Today
3.9 million people
310 million
5% of people lived
in urban areas
80% of people live
in urban areas
Philadelphia was the nation’s
largest city with 42,000 people
New York City has a
metropolitan population
of 18.9 million
Agricultural
Technological
WHY DID THE POPULATION SHIFT FROM
RURAL TO URBAN?
• Labor saving farming devices
were introduced
• Improvements to
Transportation
• Growth of the Factory
Industries
WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN
INCORPORATION AND CHARTER?
• Incorporation is the process a community must
under go to become an incorporated municipality
• Charter is the city’s basic law
• DIFFERENCE: Incorporation is what the State
Latin
declares a city needs to become an official city
Lesson: while a charter are the basic rules of the city
“in” = into
“Corpus”
= body
HOW IS A CITY SET UP AND PLANNED? WHAT
DOES ZONING MEAN?
• Originally, cities were planned haphazardly
• Now, federal government ties funding to planning
• Zoning—dividing the city into a number of divisions or
zones which regulates the property use
• Residential, Commercial, Industrial
• Example: a neighborhood could be zoned for single family
dwellings, no apartments; deprives people of their right to
pursue happiness
REVIEW OF CITY ZONING
• What happens to residential property values as residents are
closer to industrial areas? Water? Parks? Schools?
• Which zoned area below makes the most sense to you? Explain
why. (red = residential; green = commercial; yellow = industrial)
JAGUARS,
BOBCATS, POLAR
GRIZZLIES!
Above: Polar Grizzly hybrid
bear shot in northern
Canada (Global
Warming!).
Above: Ask this guy’s face if a
bobcat can hurt you!
(Cottonwood, AZ bar March of
2009.)
Left: This picture was taken on
May 19th in Yuma, AZ at the Yuma
Main Canal off of Avenue A (Do
not try to look it up on the internet
because they want to keep it a
secret.).
MACHO B
This was trapped and
later killed in Tucson
2 years ago! It had
eaten 17 small
children (most
likely).
THIS IS THE
PUMA’S RANGE!
•
Not supposed to be in Wisconsin
and Minnesota!
JAGUAR’S
RANGE
•
Oh, what do you notice?
Their freaking range extends
to Arizona!
BOBCAT’S
RANGE!
• They are little but
they carry rabies!
WHAT YOU ARE ABOUT TO SEE IS REAL?
•
http://kstp.com/news/stories/s1294718.shtml?cat=1
Thanks Captain
Obvious!
Cougar Spotting in North Metro
A north metro neighborhood is on alert after a rare confirmed sighting of a
cougar. A police dash camera in Champlin actually caught the big cat (200
pounds) on tape early Saturday morning.
Police have stepped up patrols in the area, and want people who live nearby to
be on the lookout. Those who live near the cougar sighting say it is an area with
several children and pets and they are very alarmed.
"There's a cougar loose in this area? Oh my gosh!" said one resident in the area.
"It is an issue for public safety when that type of animal is going through a
neighborhood. It could cause a lot of problems," said Champlin Police Sgt. Chris
Larrabee.
SO A BOBCAT WALKS INTO A BAR…
•
http://www.kpho.com/video/19028342/index.html
Strongmayor
government
Commission
government
Weak-mayor
government
Councilmanager
government
Write notes on these 4 concepts. Put on the back of your maps.
DEFINITION OF A MAYOR-COUNCIL
FORM OF GOVERNMENT.
• Oldest and most widely used form of local
government
• STRONG mayor-council—Mayor and council (5,
7 or 9 members) is elected and then the mayor
appoints the Department heads
• WEAK mayor-council—Mayor and council is
elected and then the council appoints the
Department heads
Deputy Mayor Leslie L.
McClendon
Mayor
Alan Krieger
DEFINITION OF A COMMISSION FORM
OF GOVERNMENT.
HISTORY BEHIND THIS
FORM: Started in
Galveston, TX in 1901 after
a hurricane left the city in
need of leadership in
multiple areas.
• 3 to 9 commissioners are popularly
elected
• Head the different departments
(Mayor, Public Works, Finance,
Public Safety, Education)
• Problems include: No definite
leadership, Try to get their department
the most money
DEFINITION OF A COUNCIL-MANAGER
FORM OF GOVERNMENT.
• A strong council of usually 5 or 7
members elected
• A weak mayor chosen by the voters
• A manager, chief administrative
officer, appointed by the council
• Simple: Council members are the
policy makers and Manager is the
policy administrator
WHAT ARE MUNICIPAL FUNCTIONS?
(CITIES SERVE THEIR RESIDENTS!)
• Provide police and fire protection
• Maintain streets, sidewalks, bridges,
parks, play grounds, golf courses,
libraries, airports, etc.
• Operate water, gas, light and
transportation systems
• Regulate pollution, traffic, building
codes, and public utilities
WHAT PROBLEMS WERE CAUSED BY PEOPLE
FLEEING TO SUBURBAN AREAS? WHAT IS A
METROPOLITAN AREA?
• Suburbs are the areas outside of the city
• Starting in the 1950s rich families moved to cheaper land outside the city
• Led to less spending in the city centers
• Metropolitan areas are the cities and areas around them
REVIEW OF MAIN CONCEPTS
1. What is a city’s basic law called?
2. In a commission form of gov’t what do the council members do?
3. Council-members or the city manager: Who would decide whether or not to
pass a zoning ordinance?
4. Why would someone argue that city zoning denies people their civil liberties?
5. Cities serve their __________ and counties serve the ___________.
6. What three reasons the US population changed from a rural to an urban
society?
7. What is the city and its surrounding areas called?
8. How are a suburbanites needs different from a city dwellers?
SEC. 2 ASSESSMENT (P. 732)
• Plan and zone a city (Any shape you want to make).
• Your plan must have a key showing residential, industrial and
commercial zones.
• Explain why you zoned the city the way you did. There must be
a method behind your madness!
TEXAS EDUCATION BOARD:
“BANNING SUBJECTS FROM
HISTORY TEXTS…AND
ADDING OTHERS!”
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