Body Planes and Directional

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Anatomical Position

Anatomical position means that the body is standing erect, facing forward with the arms at the sides and the palms facing forward

.

Medical Terms

Associated with Directions

• anterior……………………….front

caudal………………………….tail, (downward) cephalic……………………....head, (upward) distal……………………………away (from the point of reference) dorsal…………………………..back

inferior…………………….... below lateral…………………….…….side

• medial………………………middle posterior…………………….back, behind proximal……………………near(the point of reference) superior……………………..above

ventral………………………belly (front)

Body Cavities

The body has 2 main cavities:

Dorsal cavity

(back).

Ventral cavity

(front).

Crani al cavity

Spinal cavity

Thoraci c cavity

Diaphrag m

Abdomin al cavity

Pelvic cavity

Dorsal Cavity

Located on the posterior (dorsal) side of the body

It consists of 2 cavities

1. Cranial Cavity The bones of the skull create the cranial cavity to protect the brain

2. Spinal (vertebral)

Cavity Formed by the vertebrae of the spine that surrounds the spinal cord.

Ventral Cavity

Ventral Cavity – located on the anterior/ventral side of the body. It is made up of three cavities. Two are divided by the diaphragm.

Thoracic Cavity

This is the portion of the Ventral

Cavity superior the diaphragm.

to

It contains the heart, lungs and major vessels

Abdominal Cavity

Located

inferior

to the diaphragm. It includes the following organs:

Stomach

Spleen

Liver

Gallbladder pancreas

Small intestine

Most of the large intestine

Pelvic Cavity

The pelvic cavity is surrounded by the pelvic bones. The pelvic cavity contains:

Urinary bladder male and female reproductive organs

Parts of the digestive system

Planes of the body

Body planes are imaginary lines that divide the body into sections

Midsagittal plane – divides the body into equal right and left sides.

sagittal plane – divides the body into 2 parts, right and left.

Frontal or coronal plane – divides the body into anterior and posterior sections.

Transverse plane – divides the body horizontally into a top, or superior, part and a bottom, or inferior, part.

Planes of the body

Superior

Frontal

Proximal

Distal

Midsagittal

Transverse

Posterior

Medial

Lateral

Anterior

Inferior

Midsagittal

Plane

Divides body into equal right & left halves.

Frontal

(Coronal)

Plane

Divides body into front & back portions

Transverse

Plane

Divides body into upper

& lower portions .

Abdominal Quadrants

The abdominal/pelvic cavity is so large that it is divided into regions

One method of division is

quadrants. Quadrants divide the abdominal/pelvic cavity into four sections using the belly button as the point of reference for both the horizontal and vertical lines

Abdominal Regions

Epigastric

– above the stomach

A more precise method of division is

abdominal

Umbilical

button

- near the belly

Hypogastric

stomach

–below the

regions

. This method divides

Hypochondriac

ribs

– below the the area into a tic

• tac toe board

Lumbar/Lateral

– in between the hypocondriac and iliac

Iliac/inguinal

groin

– near the

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