Swine Notes

 Scientific
Name – Sus scrofa
Other common names – swine, porcine
 Monogastric
Digestive System (single
 Boar – male pig
 Sow – mature female after she has given
 Litter Size 8-12
 Gilt – immature female pig
 Barrow – castrated male pig
 Piglet – baby pig
 Gestation
– 114-(118 days) – 3 months, 3
weeks, 3 days
 Estrus Cycle – 21 days
 Body Temperature – 102 degrees farenheit
 Lactation – (21)-28 days
 Farrowing – sow giving birth (parturition)
 Average Daily Gain – approximately 2 lbs. per
day. (gilts 1.7 – barrows 1.8+)
 Feeder Pig – 50-60 lb pig ready to move into
the finishing phase.
Condition – measurement of body fat on breeding
stock animals
 Finish – measurement of body fat on market
animals (typically measured between the 12th
and 13th rib – called backfat)
 Ideal backfat on a market hog is ½ inch
 Porcine Stress Syndrome (PSS) – genetic
condition that results in pigs that are very easily
stressed sometimes even to the point of death
 PSE – Pale, Soft and Exudative – condition of
meat from swine that have been stressed shortly
prior to slaughter.
 Paternal
Fast growth rate
Heavy muscling
Efficient Feed Conversion
 Maternal
traits (father, sire, terminal)
Large litter size (prolific)
Heavy milk production
Strong mothering instincts (docile)
 Diagrams
Parts (27)
Bones (24)
Wholesale Cuts (5)
Ear Notching (10)
 How
would piglets behave on a sow with
lactation failure?
 What are the two leading countries of pork
 Who is the leading country of pork
consumption per capita?
 What are two reasons a producer should clip
needle teeth?
 What are three things that a producer
“should” during piglet processing?
 What are a couple of congenital defects seen
in piglets?
 What
age do gilts reach puberty?
 What width should an ally be to move pigs?
 What weight would be considered
underweight and disadvantaged at birth?
 Why is it important to examine the scrotum
before castration? (two reason)
 When should boars be castrated?
 What is the average neonatal mortality?
 Define neonatal
 Define congenital defect
 Define
the term cryptorchid
 What should be done with piglets that are
splay legged both front and rear?
 What tools are required to process piglets?
 What tool is helpful when moving hogs?
 What temperature should it be in the
farrowing room?
 What tool can be used to restrain a pig?
 Name three ways a piglet would be
considered disadvantaged?
 What
disease of piglets is caused by a Staph
 What are important characteristics to
evaluate when selecting replacement gilts.
 List and describe the three phases of the
swine industry.
 Name two ways that a producer can help
make sure colostrum is more evenly available
to all piglets.
 What are the two leading causes of piglet
 Explain
how the feeding systems of a
gestating sow and a market hog are different
and why?
 Explain what PEDv is and its current impact
on the swine industry.