Chapter 17 Section 1


Chapter 17 Section 1

Mobilizing for Defense

Selective Service & the GI

GI: Government Issue stamped on everything

5M Eager recruits wanted to be heroes

Draft provides 10M more

8 weeks basic training

Bulk of armed forces were white males who were drafted/volunteered

Expanding the Military / Women

Marshall (Army Chief of Staff General) pushed for WAAC/ WAC or Women’s

Auxiliary Army Corp because of personnel shortages

Official status & salary

Nurses, ambulance drivers, radio operators, electricians, pilots

No direct combat

Expanding the Military

(WAVES): Women Accepted for Volunteer

Emergency Service in the Navy

(WASPS): Women Air Force Service Pilots

Recruiting & Discrimination


Why die for democracy abroad when we don’t have it here

Mexican Americans


300,000 join armed forces

Suffered 1/5 of LA’s city’s wartime casualties

Fought in many crucial battles

Most enlisted in Army

Many participated in D-day

Multilingual/good interpreters

African Americans


1 million served in military

Segregated units & limited to non-combat roles

Saw combat in April 1943

92 Infantry Division or Buffalo Soldiers in bloody Italian campaign of 1943-1944

Tuskegee Airmen

Not allowed to join air force or marines

African Americans


Red Cross separated blood

Men shortages toward end of war integrated Af. Am soldiers

Asian Americans


13000 Chinese joined armed forces

33000 Japanese joined armed forces

Spies & interpreters in the Pacific

442 nd Regimental Combat Team in Italy &

France became most decorated unit in the war

Internment camps in the United States

Native Americans


25000 enlisted including 800 women

Navaho Code Talkers

Denied right to vote in 3 states

Industrial Response


Auto plants convert to tanks, planes, boats and command cars

Mechanical Pencil Plant makes bomb parts

Bedspread co. made mosquito netting

Kaiser and Liberty Ship (4 to 14 days )

Coca-Cola 5 cents available to every soldier

Labor’s Contribution


18M workers working in defense plants

6M were women

Women did great job & earn 60% of men

2M minority workers

FDR passed nondiscrimination law in defense plants to keep Randolph & Af Am from marching on Washington


Entertainment Industry

War-oriented propaganda films

U.S. movies make Soviets heroes

Later produces escape films like musicals and romances


Office of Scientific Research & Dev

FDR in 1941 created OSRD or Office of

Scientific Research & Development spurred improvements in radar, sonar, pesticides, penicillin

Advisory Committee & Einstein give way to

Manhattan Project & development of atom bomb

Federal Government Control

Office of Price Administration

Little production of consumer products which meant big demand and possible price increases

OPA or Office of Price Adm.: fought inflation by freezing prices on most goods

Fed gov. raises taxes / less to spend

Americans buy war bonds

Federal Government Control

War Production Board

WPB or War Production Board: who will make what, how many, by when & will get x amounts of material

Nationwide drives to recycle

Rationing or fixed allotment of goods

Coupon books for meat, sugar, coffee & gas

People do as asked for war effort

Federal Government Control

Secretary of State Stimson & cost plus system: Government paid all development & production costs on anything a company made for the war

One-dollar a year men to decide on war contracts

Deficit spending


Run by OPA

Fixed allotment of goods

Coupon Books for meat, shoes, sugar, coffee & gas

Meets with large amount of acceptance but the black market did exist