The Extraordinary
Properties of Water
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by the BOX
Water (1)
• Water is made up of three atoms:
one oxygen and two hydrogen.
• The formula for a water molecule
is H2O.
Water is Polar (2-5)
• In water, the oxygen atom attracts
more negative electrons
• Water is called a POLAR molecule
– The oxygen end “acts” negative
– The hydrogen end “acts” positive
• However, Water is neutral because it
has an equal number of protons and
– Water has Zero Net Charge
Hydrogen Bonds Exist
Between Water Molecules (6)
• Formed between a highly
Electronegative atom of
a polar molecule and a
• One hydrogen bond is
weak, but many
hydrogen bonds are
Interaction Between Water
Molecules (7)
• A hydrogen bond is formed when
• the Negative Oxygen end of one water
molecule is attracted to the Positive
Hydrogen end of another water molecule
What are
of Water?
Properties of Water
• At sea level, pure water boils at 100
°C and freezes at 0 °C.
• The boiling temperature of water
decreases at higher elevations (lower
atmospheric pressure).
• For this reason, an egg will take
longer to boil at higher altitudes
Properties of Water (11)
• Cohesion
• Adhesion
• High Specific Heat
• High Heat of Vaporization
• Less Dense as a Solid
Cohesion (12-15)
• Is the attraction between particles of
the same substance
• Cohesion produces surface tension when
one water molecule attracts other water
– Surface tension is a measure of the
strength of water’s surface
• Produces a surface film on water that
allows insects to walk on the surface of
Cohesion …
Helps insects walk across
Adhesion (16-20)
• It is attraction between two different
– Water makes hydrogen bonds with other surfaces
like glass, soil, plant tissues, and cotton
• Adhesion is water attracted to other materials
while Cohesion is water attracted to itself.
• Adhesion produces capillary action as water
is attracted to and pulled into a tube.
– Ex: transpiration is the process in which plants
and trees remove water from the soil, and paper
towels soak up water.
Adhesion Causes
Capillary Action
Which gives water the
ability to “climb”
Adhesion Also Causes
Water to …
Form spheres &
hold onto plant
Attach to a
silken spider
High Specific Heat (21,22)
• Is the amount of heat needed to raise
or lower 1g of a substance by 1° C.
• Water resists temperature change, both
for heating and cooling.
• Water can absorb or release large
amounts of heat energy with little
change in actual temperature.
High Heat of Vaporization
• Is the amount of energy needed to
convert 1g of a substance from a
liquid to a gas
• In order for water to evaporate,
hydrogen bonds must be broken.
• As water evaporates, it removes a
lot of heat with it.
High Heat of Vaporization
• Water's heat of vaporization is 540 cal/g.
• In order for water to evaporate, each
gram must absorb 540 calories of energy
– This is why steam burns are much worse than
hot water burns.
• As water evaporates, it takes a lot of heat
and has a cooling effect.
– but when it condenses, it releases heat to the
Global Warming (28)
• Water vapor forms a
kind of “blanket” which
helps keep the Earth
– Heat from the sun that
warms the surface of the
earth is absorbed and held by
the vapor.
Water is Less Dense as a
Solid (29-31)
• Ice is less dense as a solid than as a
liquid so ice floats
• Frozen water forms a crystal-like lattice
whereby molecules are set at fixed
• Liquid water has hydrogen bonds that
are constantly being broken and
Water is Less Dense as a
•Which is ice and which is water?
Water is Less Dense as a
Homeostasis (32,33)
• Ability to maintain a steady state despite
changing conditions
• Water is important to this process because:
a. Makes a good insulator
b. Resists temperature change
c. Universal solvent-dissolves many
d. Good coolant
e. Ice protects against temperature
extremes (insulates frozen lakes)