Macromolecule and Enzyme Test Study Guide KEY
Name the 4 macromolecules and the functions and examples of each.
Carbohydrates- quick/short term energy
Protein- Building blocks of living materials; compose structural parts such as keratin in hair and nails, antibodies, cartilage, bones, ligaments and enzymes
Lipids-Long term energy storage, Insulate against heat loss, Protective cushion around organs
Nucleic acids- Important for growth & reproduction of cells, contains the genetic code
Label and illustrate the 4 macromolecules.
Lipid Carbohydrate Protein Nucleic Acid
Name the 4 polymers with their monomer.
Polymer: Carbohydrate, Lipid, Protein, Nucleic Acid
Monomer: Monosaccharide, Glycerol/fatty acid, Amino Acid, Nucleotide
Give the name of the macromolecule tested and what indicates a positive test with the following:
Lugol’s Iodine - Carbohydrate-Starch; blue/black color
Benedict’s Solution - Carbohydrate- glucose (sugar); green/orange/red color
Biuret’s - Protein; purple/lavender
Sudan IV - Lipids; pink ring at top
Use the following terms to draw and label an enzymatic reaction: enzyme, active site, substrate, reactants, products, enzyme-substrate complex.
What is a catalyst? How do enzymes act like catalysts to affect chemical reactions?
Catalyst is any substance that speeds up a reaction
Increases the speed at which a reaction happens, decreases the activation energy required for a reaction
What does the term “Lock and key” explain?
Enzyme specificity: There is only one enzyme that works with one substrate to produce products
The enzyme can be used over and over again to produce the same products-it is not used up
Explain the term Denaturation. What things could affect the way in which an enzyme works?
Enzymes quit working because conditions have changed: the active sites change shapes and the substrates can no longer fit into them
Name two enzymes that we have discussed and how they help the body function.
Mouth- Salivary Amylase-breaks down starch
Stomach- Pepsin- breaks down proteins
Intestines- Amylase-breaks down starch
Trypsin- breaks down protein
Lipase- breaks down lipids/fat
Maltase/Sucrase/Lactase- breaks down sugars
Peptidase- breaks down proteins to amino acids
Name and explain the two types of enzymatic reactions. Draw a representation of each.
Catabolic- breaks bigger molecules into smaller ones
Anabolic- builds smaller molecules into larger ones