Great Awakening

advertisement

The Great Awakening: 18 th Century America

“From the Reformation to the Constitution”

Bill Petro

your friendly neighborhood historian

www.billpetro.com/v7pc 05/09/2010 1

Objectives By the end of this session you should be able to • Trace development of the

Great Awakening

• Identify the key players:

3 W’s

• Outline the life of

Jonathan Edwards

05/09/2010 2

American Church History Colonial National Modern 1787 1865 Calvinism Arminianism Biblistic Rationalism Liberalism Subjectivism Existentialism Theocentrism 05/09/2010 Anthropocentrism Liberalism 3

Revivalism 1. God’s saints are revived 2. They share their faith locally 3. Missionary enterprise beyond the locale 4. Social outreach 05/09/2010 4

05/09/2010 Colonies: 1750 5

Middle Colonies Course of Awakening • 1720’s: Theodore Fruelinghausen N. New Jersey Dutch pastor – Rariton River Valley • He noticed some of his Deacons were becoming converted • New Brunswick, NJ – Presbyterians William Tennent and his Irish sons 05/09/2010 6

William Tennent • 1673-1745 • Presbyterian evangelist • Log College 05/09/2010 7

Northern Course of Awakening • 1734-37: Connecticut River Valley -

Congregationalists

: Northampton to the Atlantic • Died down for 3 years • Enflamed under

Whitefield

: Boston, Salem, Portsmouth, all of New England • Leadership and writings of

Jonathan Edwards

05/09/2010 8

“Evangelicalism” • Premise: conversion, “new birth” • Puritans: public profession • 1730s, 40s: “Awakenings” Colonies, England, Wales, Scotland • Mass conversions, open air preaching of the Word • Split churches: “New Lights/New Side” vs. “Old Lights/Old Side” 05/09/2010 9

Southern Course of Awakening •

Presbyterians

in N. Virginia •

Baptists

(Separate Congregationalists) in New England (Connecticut) expands to Separate Baptists in N. Carolina • From 6,000 – 20,000 in 3 years, foundation of

Southern Baptists

05/09/2010 10

Baptists • In America since 17 th century • Galvanized by Great Awakening 05/09/2010 11

The 3 W’s 05/09/2010 Ed

W

ards

W

hitefield

W

esley 12

George Whitefield • 1714 - 1770 • In 1738 made 1st of 7 visits to the America • Ordained Anglican • “Great Itinerant” • Member of Wesley’s Oxford “Holy Club” • Popular as G. Washington • Huge crowds: 30,000 05/09/2010 13

Preaching in the Field • Collapsible Field pulpit 05/09/2010 14

The New Birth • John 3:1-8 • Whitefield: “How this glorious Change is wrought in the Soul cannot easily be explained." 05/09/2010 15

Ben Franklin on Whitefield • Heard Whitefield preach in Colonies & England: • Philadelphia Hall • Georgia orphanage • Size of crowds • Pleased with discourse 05/09/2010 16

John Wesley • 1703 - 1791 • “a brand plucked from the burning” 05/09/2010 17

Wesley vs. Whitefield

Son of Anglican rector Son of tavern keeper Strict religious upbringing Conversion: Aldersgate, 35 Worldly influences Oxford, 21 Preaching: Intellectual, doctrinal Dramatic, emotional Arminian (semi-Augustinian) Calvinistic Exceptional organizer

05/09/2010

Exceptional preacher

18

Methodism • Hierarchical • Episcopal 05/09/2010 19

Methodists: Francis Asbury • 1745-1816 • Leader in 2 nd Great Awakening 05/09/2010 20

05/09/2010 21

Jonathan Edwards • 1703-1758 • Interpreter of and apologist for the Great Awakening 05/09/2010 22

First Churches, Northampton • Fifth Meeting House 05/09/2010 23

Jonathan Edwards In memory of Jonathan Edwards Minister of Northampton From Feb 15, 1727 to June 22, 1750 “

The law of truth was in his mouth, and iniquity was not found in his lips: he walked with me in peace and equity, and did turn many away from iniquity

” Malachi 2:6 05/09/2010 24

Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God.

Enfield, July 8, 1741 05/09/2010 25

Revival of Northampton 05/09/2010 26

05/09/2010 Jonathan Edwards, A Life 27

02/14/2010 28

“Denominationalism” • Primary expression of American Christianity, post 1740’s • Based, in part, on

freedom

to differ • Denomination

vs.

Sect • Inclusive

vs.

Exclusive • The true church cannot be identified with any

single

ecclesiastical structure • Seed planted by Reformers: not of bishops but of believers • Architected by Congregationalists at

Westminster Assembly

05/09/2010 29

Effects of the Great Awakening • 80% of Americans unified in common understanding of Christian life and faith • Dissent/dissenters enjoyed greater respect: Baptists, Methodists, Presbyterians • Emphasis on education: Univ. of Penn, UNC 05/09/2010 30

Effects of the Great Awakening,

cont

• Preaching to Indians and Slaves • Reinterpreted Covenant: man’s response • Dissolution of Theocracy: disestablishment in VA & NC, democratization • Breakdown in theological consensus: New/Old Lights 05/09/2010 31

1-Word Summary • Pilgrims • Puritans • Denominations • Whitefield • Wesley • Edwards • Great Awakening 05/09/2010 Separatists Saints Inclusive Dramatic Methodism Glory Fire 32

Download