Life Cycle and Nutrition: Mother and Infant

Life Cycle and Nutrition:
Mother and Infant
PowerPoint Lectures source from
Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, twelfth edition
Frances Sizer and Ellie Whitney
dr. Sumarni, M.Kes., Sp.GK
Copyright © 2010 Cengage Learning, Inc
• All people need the same nutrients, but the
amounts we need change as we move through life.
Pregnancy: The Impact of Nutrition
on the Future
 A pregnant woman must understand that her
nutrition today is critical to the health of her future
child throughout life.
 The nutrient demands of pregnancy are
Preparing for Pregnancy
 Before she becomes pregnant, a woman must
establish eating habits that will optimally nourish
both the growing fetus and herself.
 The embryo undergoes significant and rapid
developmental changes that depend on good
 Certain lifestyles can impair fertility.
Prepregnancy Weight
 A woman who starts out underweight and who fails
to gain sufficiently during pregnancy is likely to
have a low- birthweight baby (< 5 ½ pounds =
2,500 grams).
Low birthweight babies are associated with: Lower
adult IQ, short stature, educational disadvantages
 Obese women are also urged to strive for healthy
weight gains before pregnancy.
 Babies born to obese mothers are more likely to
have heart defects, neural tube defects, and other
A Healthy Placenta and Other Organs
 A major reason the mother’s nutrition before
pregnancy is so crucial is that it determines
whether her uterus will be able to support the
growth of a healthy placenta during the first month
of gestation.
 The placenta also produces hormones that act in
many ways to maintain pregnancy and prepare the
mother’s breasts for lactation.
Increased Need for Nutrients
• Pregnancy brings physiological adjustments that
demand increased intakes of energy and nutrients.
• A balanced diet that includes more nutrient- dense
foods from the five food groups can help to meet
these needs.
Energy : + 340 kkal/day during the
second trimester & + 450 kkal/day
during the third trimester
carbohydrate : ideally, 175
grams or more / day &
certainly no less than
135 grams, is necessary to
fuel the fetal brain & spare
the protein needed for fetal
Protein : DRI
recommendation for
pregnancy is + 25 grams
/ day higher than for
nonpregnant women
Of Special Interest: Folate and Vitamin B12
• Due to their key roles in cell reproduction, folate and
vitamin B12 are needed in large amounts during
• Folate plays an important role in preventing neural tube
• One type is anecephaly, when the brain fails to develop,
• Another is spina bifida, when the membranes covering the
spinal cord protrude from the sac.
Vitamin D, Calcium, Iron and Zinc
• Vitamin D and the minerals involved in building the
skeleton—calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium—are in
great demand during pregnancy. Insufficient intakes may
produce abnormal fetal bone development.
• A pregnant woman needs iron to help increase her blood
volume and to provide for placental and fetal needs
• Zinc is vital for protein synthesis and cell development
during pregnancy.
Prenatal Supplements
• Women most likely to benefit from prenatal multivitaminmineral supplements during pregnancy include those who
do not eat adequately, those carrying twins or triplets, and
those who smoke cigarettes or are alcohol or drug abusers.
How Much Weight Should a Woman Gain during
Pregnancy ?
• Weight gain is essential for a healthy pregnancy.
• A woman’s prepregnancy BMI, her own nutrient needs, and
the number of fetuses she is carrying help to determine
appropriate weight gain.
Should Pregnant Women Be Physically Active ?
• Physically fit women can continue to be physically active
throughout pregnancy.
• Pregnant women should be cautious in their choices of
Why Do Some Women Crave Pickles and Ice Cream
While Others Can’t Keep Anything Down ?
• Food cravings usually do not reflect physiological
needs, and some may interfere with nutrition.
• Nausea arises from hormonal changes of pregnancy.
Some Cautions for the Pregnant Woman
• Some choices that pregnant women make or
substances they encounter can harm the fetus,
sometimes severely.
Cigarette Smoking
A surgeon general’s warning states that parental
smoking can kill an otherwise healthy fetus or
• Nicotine and cyanide in cigarettes are toxic to the fetus
• Smoking limits the oxygen delivered to the fetus
• Can damage fetal chromosomes
• Risk of low-birthweight baby
• Increased risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
• Even environmental tobacco smoke is unhealthy
Medicinal Drugs and Herbal Supplements
• Medicinal drugs taken during pregnancy can cause
serious birth defects.
• Herbal supplements have not been adequately
tested for safety or effectiveness during pregnancy.
Drugs of Abuse
• Illicit drugs such as marijuana and cocaine can
cause serious health problems, including nervous
system disorders to the fetus.
• Infants born to mothers who use crack and other
forms of cocaine face low birthweight, heartbeat
abnormalities, the pain of withdrawal or even death.
Environmental Contaminants
• Infants and young children of pregnant
women exposed to lead show signs of
delayed mental and psychomotor
• Mercury in some fatty fish can damage the
developing brain and nervous system of the fetus.
Foodborne Illness
• Vomiting and diarrhea caused by foodborne illnesses can
leave a pregnant woman exhausted and dangerously
• Listeriosis can cause miscarriage, stillbirth, or severe
damage to the fetus.
Pregnant women should avoid unpasteurized cheeses,
undercooked meat, smoked meats.
Vitamin Mineral Megadoses
• Many vitamins are toxic when taken in excess, and
minerals are even more so.
A single megadose of vitamin A has caused birth defects.
Weight-loss dieting, even for short periods, is hazardous
during pregnancy.
Low-carbohydrate diets or fasts that cause ketosis deprive
the fetal brain of needed glucose and may impair its
Energy restriction during pregnancy is dangerous,
regardless of the woman’s prepregnancy weight or
the amount of weight gained the previous month.
Sugar substitutes
• Artificial sweeteners have been studied extensively and found
to be acceptable during pregnancy if used within the FDA’s
Women with pheylketonuria should not use aspartame.
Research studies
– Have not indicated that caffeine (even in high
doses) causes birth defects in human infants.
– Have found that moderate caffeine intake (3
cups of coffee a day) during pregnancy has no
effect on infant birthweight or length of
Drinking during Pregnancy
Alcohol crosses the placenta freely and is directly
toxic. Alcohol:
• Limits oxygen delivery to the fetus
• Slows cell division which can cause
abnormalities in organs
• Affects fetal brain cell division
• Interferes with nutrient transport to fetus
• Before fertilization, alcohol can damage the
ovum or sperm
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders
(FASD) a spectrum of physical,
behavioral, and cognitive
disabilities caused by prenatal
alcohol exposure.
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) the
cluster of symptoms including
brain damage, growth retardation,
mental retardation, and facial
abnormalities seen in an infant or
child whose mother consumed
alcohol during her pregnancy
A child with FAS
• Disease during pregnancy can endanger the health
of the mother and fetus.
• If discovered early, many diseases can be
controlled--another reason early prenatal care is
Pregnant women with type 1 or type 2 diabetes  severe
hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia, preterm labor, and pregnancy
related hypertension.
Infants may be large, suffer physical and mental abnormalities,
or experience other complications such as respiratory distress
Gestational Diabetes
– Usually resolves after delivery but some women go on to
develop type 2 diabetes.
– Can lead to fetal or infant sickness or death.
– More commonly leads to surgical birth and high infant
– All women are screened for this during the first trimester.
Hypertension during pregnancy may be chronic hypertension
or gestational hypertension.
Hypertension in pregnancy may signal the onset of
preeclampsia, a condition characterized by high blood
pressure, protein in the urine and edema.
Affects all the mother’s organs and can progress to
eclampsia, which can be fatal.
Nutrition During Lactation
A nursing mother produces about 25 ounces of milk a day.
Producing this milk costs a woman almost 500 calories per
day above her regular need during the first six months of
She should eat an extra 330 calories of food and the other 170
calories can be drawn from her fat stores.
Nutrition During Lactation
• Lactating women need extra fluid and enough
energy and nutrients to make sufficient milk
each day.
• It is worth repeating, that the effect of nutritional
deprivation of the mother is to reduce the quantity,
not the quality, of her milk.
When Should a Woman Not Breastfeed?
• Breastfeeding is not advised if the mother’s milk is
contaminated with alcohol, drugs, or
• Most ordinary infections such as colds have no effect on
• Where safe alternatives are available, HIV- infected women
should not breastfeed their infants.
Feeding the Infant
• Early nutrition affects later
and early
feedings establish eating
habits that influence nutrition
throughout life.
• A baby grows faster during
the first year of life than
ever again.
Nutrient Needs
Infants’ rapid development depends on adequate nutrient supplies,
including water from breast milk or formula.
After six months of age, the energy saved by slower growth is
spent on increased activity.
Why is Breast Milk So Good for Babies?
Breastfeeding Tips
Breast milk is more easily and completely digested than
infant formula, so breastfed infants usually need to eat
more frequently than formula-fed infants do.
During the first few weeks, the newborn will
approximately 8 to 12 feedings a day, on demand.
As the infant gets older, there are longer intervals
between feedings.
Energy Nutrients in Breats Milk
For infants, breast milk is the most nearly perfect food.
The carbohydrate in breast milk is lactose. Contains a
generous proportion of the essential fatty acids as well as
their longer-chain derivatives, arachidonic acid and DHA.
The protein is largely alpha-lactalbumin and lactoferrin.
Vitamins and Minerals in Breast Milk
• With the exception of vitamin D, the vitamin content of the
breast milk of a well- nourished mother is ample.
• The AAP recommends a vitamin D supplement
for exclusively breast-fed infants.
• At six months of age, an exclusively breast- fed baby
needs additional iron.
• If the water supply is low in fluoride, fluoride
supplementation is needed after 6 months
Immune Factors in Breast Milk
• During the first two or three days of lactation, the breasts
produce colostrum, a premilk substance containing antibodies
and white cells from the mother’s blood.
• Breastfed infants may have: Less allergies, Less CVD, Lower
blood cholesterol,Less ear and respiratory infections
Other Potential Benefits
May protect against obesity in childhood and later years.
May have a positive effect on later intelligence.
Formula Feeding
Infant formulas are designed to resemble breast milk and must
meet an AAP standard for nutrient composition.
Special formulas are available for premature infants, allergic
infants, and others.
Formulas should be replaced with milk after the baby’s first
An Infant’s First Foods
When to Introduce Solid Food
Foods may be started gradually beginning between 4 & 6 months of age.
Foods to Provide Iron and Vitamin C
Iron ranks highest on the list of nutrients needing
attention in infant nutrition.
Excessive milk consumption can displace iron-rich
foods and lead to iron-deficiency anemia,
popularly called milk anemia. To prevent Iron
deficiency : Iron-fortified formula, cereal
To prevent vitamin C deficiency: Many fruit juices (4-6
ounces per day)
Physical Readiness for Solid Foods
• When the baby can sit up, can handle finger foods,
and is teething, hard crackers and other finger foods
may be introduced under the watchful eye of an adult.
• Avoid foods that are choke hazards.
Food Allergies
• To prevent allergy and to facilitate its prompt identification
should it occur, experts recommend introducing singleingredient foods, one at a time, in small portions, and waiting
up to four to five days before introducing the next food.
Choice of Infant Foods
Commercial baby foods in the U.S. and Canada are safe, and
except for mixed dinners with added starch fillers and heavily
sweetened desserts, they have high nutrient density.
Foods to Omit
Sweets of any kind (including baby food “desserts”) have
no place in a baby’s diet.
Honey and corn syrup should never be fed to infants
because of the risk of botulism.
Foods at one year
The baby should be
receiving foods from all
food groups.
Children love to eat what
their families eat
Looking Ahead
The first year of life is the time to lay the
foundation for future health.
From the nutrition standpoint, the problems most
common in later years are obesity and dental
It is important in the first year to encourage eating
habits that will support continued normal weight as
the child grows.
Childhood Obesity and Early
Development of Chronic Diseases
Large numbers of children and adolescents in the
U.S. are being diagnosed with obesity and type 2
Today, 32 % of US children and adolescent are
overweight and many of these are obese.
Childhood obesity rates are increasing all over
the world.
Childhood Obesity and Early Chronic Diseases
Type 2 diabetes strikes more children today than ever before and is closely
associated with obesity
The Challenge of Childhood Obesity
Percentage of Young People Who Are
Characteristics of Childhood Obesity
• While no group has fully escaped this trend, obese
• Have a family history of type 2 diabetes
• Were born to mothers who had diabetes while pregnant
with them
• Have metabolic syndrome
• Have a low family income
• Have parents who are obese
Early Childhood Influences on Obesity
Much evidence points to the importance of early
childhood as a period of influence on obesity
Children learn behaviors from their families, and
entire families may be:
– Eating too much
– Dieting inappropriately
– Exercising too little
– Watching too much television
Early Development of Type 2 Diabetes
• 85% of children with type 2 diabetes are obese
• Risk of developing type 2 diabetes varies among U.S.
ethnic groups:
• 8% of white children
• 45% of Pima Indians, African American, Asian, and Hispanic children
Early Development of Heart Disease
• Atherosclerosis, which only becomes apparent as
heart disease in adulthood, begins in youth.
• Children with the highest risk of developing heart
• Are sedentary and obese
• May have diabetes
• May have high blood pressure
• May have high blood LDL cholesterol
High Blood Cholesterol
• Cholesterol testing is recommended for overweight
children and adolescents with a family history of heart
disease or elevated blood cholesterol.
Blood cholesterol in children is a good predictor of
their future adult cholesterol and like in adults is
related to:
– High saturated fat intake
– Overweight
– Sedentary lifestyle
High Blood Pressure
Hypertension that develops in the first decades
of life, especially in overweight children, tends
to worsen if untreated.
Children with hypertension can lower their blood
pressure by:
• Participating in regular activity
• Losing weight or maintaining weight as they grow taller
• Restricting dietary sodium
• Decreasing intake of caffeinated beverages
Preventing And Reversing Overweight
in Children: A Family Affair
• An initial goal might be to slow the child’s rate
of gain while the child grows taller.
• Weight loss ordinarily is not recommended
because diet restriction can easily interfere
with normal growth, but may depend on the
severity of the condition
Parents Set An
Diet Moderation, Not Deprivation
All children should eat an appropriate
amount and variety of foods, regardless of
their body weight.
Life Cycle and Nutrition:
Child, Teen, and Older Adult
PowerPoint Lectures source from
Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, eleventh edition
Frances Sizer and Ellie Whitney
Early and Middle Childhood
• Children’s nutrient needs reflect
their stage of growth.
Feeding a Healthy Young Child
At no time in life does the human diet change faster than
during the second year.
From 12 to 24 months, a child’s diet changes from
infant foods consisting of mostly formula or breast milk
to mostly modified adult foods.
– Milk remains the central source of calcium, protein, and
other nutrients.
Energy and Protein
• An infant’s appetite decreases markedly near the
first birthday and fluctuates thereafter.
• Today’s children too often eat foods high in sugars,
saturated fat, and calories.
• Faced with a tempting array of such foods, children
may disregard internal satiety signals and
overconsume calories, inviting obesity.
Carbohydrate and Fiber
Carbohydrate recommendations are based on glucose use
by the brain.
A one-year-old’s brain is large for the size of the body, so
the glucose demanded by the one-year-old falls in the
adult range.
Children’s fiber intakes should equal their “age plus 5
Fat and Fatty Acids
DRI range for total fat intakes:
– 30 to 40% of energy for children age 1 to 3 years of age
– 25 to 35% of energy for children 4 to 18 years of age
Vitamins and Minerals
 As child grows larger, so does the demand for vitamins and
 Well-nourished children do not need supplements.
 Iron deficiency is a problem worldwide; iron deficiency occurs
in about 7% of U.S. toddlers due to:
• Switching to whole milk and unfortified milk
• Diminished iron stores
• Unreliable food consumption
Treats vs. Dinner
 The Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study found that
most infants take in too few fruits and vegetables.
– Most popular fruit and vegetable are bananas and French
fries, neither a rich source of needed vitamins and minerals
– Most children ate too much saturated fat and too little
 A steady diet of high-calorie treats leads to nutrient
deficiencies and obesity.
Planning Children’s Meals
Mealtimes and Snacking
The childhood years are the last chance to influence the
child’s food choices.
Children’s Preferences
Children naturally like nutritious foods in all the food groups,
with one exception – vegetables.
– Presentation and variety may be the key to getting children
to like vegetables.
– Serve small, warm, crunchy, bright vegetables.
– Don’t bribe or force foods.
 The parent must be responsible for what the child is
offered to eat, but the child should be allowed to decide
how much and even whether to eat.
Little children like to eat small portions of food at little tables.
 To prevent choking:
• Encourage child to sit
• Avoid round foods such as grapes, nuts, hard candies,
popcorn, tough meat, peanut butter eaten from the spoon,
and pieces of hot dogs.
Snacking and Other Healthy Habits
Can Nutrient Deficiencies Impair a Child’s
Brain ?
 The detrimental effects of nutrient deficiencies in
children in developed nations can be subtle.
 Iron deficiency is the most widespread nutrition
problem of children and causes abnormalities in
both physical health and behavior.
 Iron toxicity is a major form of poisoning in children.
Food Allergy, Intolerance, and Aversion
Food Allergy
 Food allergies always involve the immune system.
 A true food allergy occurs when a food protein enters the body.
 The immune system of an allergic person reacts to the
foreign molecule as it does to any antigen, it produces
 On subsequent exposures, the antibodies react with other
body cells which release histamine, causing the allergic
 In some people, the result is the life-threatening food allergy
reaction of anaphylactic shock.
 Peanuts, tree nuts, milk, eggs, wheat, soybeans, fish,
and shellfish are the foods most likely to trigger this
extreme reaction.
 6% of children have true food allergies.
 Children sometimes “grow out” of their food allergies
(notably allergy to peanuts may fade with time) until in
adulthood food allergies affect only 1 or 2 percent of
the population.
These eight normally wholesome foods – milk, shellfish, fish,
peanuts, tree nuts, eggs, wheat, and soy – may cause lifethreatening symptoms in people with allergies.
Food Allergy Warning Label
Detecting Food Allergy
 Elimination diets can help determine the allergic
 Diagnosis is based on the presence of
antibodies, and tests are imperative to
determine whether allergy exists.
 Diagnosis is also done with a skin prick test.
Food Aversion and Intolerance
 Food intolerance is characterized by unpleasant
symptoms that reliably occur after consumption of
certain foods.
Lactose intolerance
 Food aversion is an intense dislike of food that may
be a biological response to a food that once caused
Physical Activity, Television, and
Children’s Nutrition Problems
 Children have become more sedentary, and sedentary
children are more often overweight.
The Impact of Television on Nutrition
Television exerts four major adverse impacts on
children’s nutrition:
 It requires no energy expenditure above the resting level.
 It consumes time that could be spent in energetic play.
 It correlates with more snacking and eating high- calorie fatty
and sugary foods advertised on TV.
 Children who watch more than four hours of TV a day are least
likely to eat fruits and vegetables and more likely to be obese.
Dental Caries
Parents can help prevent tooth damage by helping children to:
 Limit between-meal snacking
 Brush and floss daily, and brush or rinse after eating
meals and snacks.
 Choose foods that don’t stick to teeth and are swallowed
 Snack on crisp or fibrous foods to stimulate the
release and rinsing action of saliva
Is Breakfast Really the Most Important
Meal of the Day for Children?
• A nutritious breakfast is a central feature of a child’s
diet that supports healthy growth and development.
• Breakfast is critical to school performance.
• School breakfast programs help to fill the need.
Nutrition in Adolescence
Teenagers are not fed; they eat.
Nutritious snacks play an
important role in an active
teen’s diet.
Nutrient Needs
Need for vitamins, minerals, the energy nutrients, and,
in fact, all nutrients is greater during adolescence than
at any other time of life except pregnancy and
The Special Cases of Iron
 The need for iron increases for males and females
 .A boy needs more iron at this time to develop extra
lean body mass, whereas a girl needs extra iron not
only to gain lean body mass but also to support
Calsium and the Bones
 The bones are growing longer at a rapid rate thanks to a
special bone structure, the epiphyseal plate, that
disappears as a teenager reaches adult height.
 Sufficient calcium intake is crucial during adolescence to
support normal bone growth and density.
Increase in Soft Drink Consumption over Two Decades, U.S.
When teens choose soft drinks and abandon milk, they increase their
chances of bone disease later on in life
Milk Consumption over Two Decades, U.S. Adolescents
Vitamin D
 Vitamin D is also essential for bone growth and
 some evidence for a protective effect of vitamin D
against diseases such as diabetes and cancer, the
AAP has revised vitamin D intake recommendations
Nutrition in the Later Years
Energy and Activity
 Energy needs decrease with age, but exercise burns
off excess fuel, maintains lean tissue, and brings
health benefits.
 Body’s BMR decreases 1 to 2 percent per
decade as thyroxine diminishes.
Protein Needs
 Protein needs remain about the same for older
people as for young adults.
 Choose low-fat, fiber-rich protein foods to help control
other health problems.
Carbohydrates and Fiber
 Generous carbohydrate intakes are
recommended for older adults.
 Including fiber in the diet is important to avoid
Fats and Arthritis
 The omega-3 fatty acid, EPA, may affect one type of
arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis.
 A malfunction in the immune system mistakenly
attacks the bone coverings as if they were
foreign tissue.
Vitamin Needs
 Vitamin A is the only vitamin whose
absorption increases with aging.
 Vitamin D synthesis declines fourfold, setting
the stage for deficiency.
 Vitamin B12 absorption also declines.
 Lifelong high intakes of vegetables correlate with less
macular degeneration and cataracts.
Water and the Minerals
 Dehydration is a major risk for older adults.
 Total body water decreases with age and so dehydration
can occur quickly.
 The thirst mechanism is imprecise and the kidneys are
less efficient in recapturing water before it is lost as
 In a bedridden person dehydration can lead to pressure
Adults of all ages need 6 to 8 cups of fluid each day.
 Iron status generally improves in later life, especially in
women after menstruation ceases and in those who
take iron supplements, eat red meat regularly, and
include vitamin C-rich fruits in their daily diet.
– When iron deficiency occurs, it is often due to low
food intake or other causes.
 Zinc deficiencies are also common.
 Zinc deficiency can depress the appetite and blunt
the sense of taste, leading to low food intakes and
worsening zinc status.
Calcium absorption declines with age
and people fail to consume enough
calcium-rich foods.
Food Choices of Older
 Older people who enjoy a wide variety of foods are
better nourished and have a better quality of life than
those who eat a monotonous diet.
 The quality of life among the 85 and older group has
 Evidence supports the idea that a single low-dose
multivitamin-mineral tablet a day can improve
resistance to disease in older people.
Obstacles to Adequacy
Nutrient-Drug Interactions:
Who Should Be Concerned ?
 Prescription and over-the-counter medicines
can have unintended consequences.
Medicines and Nutrition
Personal Strategy
 When you need to take a medicine, do so wisely.
 Ask your healthcare provider or pharmacist for
specific instructions about the doses, times, and how
to take the medication, for example, with or without
 Try to live life in a way that requires less chemical