Animal Take-home Test

The young of some insects are merely small versions of the adult, whereas the larvae of other insects look
completely different from adults, eat different foods, and may live in different habitats. Which of the following
most directly favors the evolution of the latter more radical kind of metamorphosis?
a. natural selection of sexually immature
d. B and C only
forms of insects
b. changes in the homeobox genes
e. A, B, and C
governing early development
c. the evolution of meiosis
What is the correct sequence of the following four events during an animal’s development?
1. gastrulation
2. metamorphosis
3. fertilization
4. cleavage
a. 4, 3, 2, 1
d. 3, 4, 2, 1
b. 4, 3, 1, 2
e. 3, 4, 1, 2
c. 3, 2, 4, 1
Cephalization is generally associated with all of the following except
a. bilateral symmetry
d. a longitudinal nerve cord
b. concentration of sensory structures at the
e. a sessile existence
anterior end
c. a brain
Which of the following is an incorrect association of an animal germ layer with the tissues or organs to which it
gave rise?
a. ectoderm – outer covering
d. mesoderm – muscle
b. endoderm – internal lining of digestive
e. endoderm – internal linings of liver and lungs
c. mesoderm – nervous system
In the mesohyl of various undisturbed sponges, one is likely to observe (at one time or another) all of the
following except
a. amoebocytes
d. zygotes
b. spicules
e. choanocytes
c. sponging
Which of the following is a correct statement about members of the phylum Cnidaria? They
a. are not capable of locomotion because
d. may use a gastrovascular cavity as a hydrostatic
they lack true muscle tissue
b. are primarily filter feeders
e. are the simplest organisms with a complete
c. have either or both of two body forms:
alimentary canal (two openings)
mobile polyps and sessile medusa
While vacationing in a country that lacks adequate meat inspection, a student ate undercooked ground beef.
Sometime later, the student became easily fatigued, and lost body weight. At about the same time, whitish,
flattened, rectangular objects full of small white spheres started appearing in his feces. Administration of
niclosamide cured the problem. The student had probably been infected by a
a. pinworm
d. tapeworm
b. hookworm
e. proboscis worm
c. nematode
While sampling marine plankton in a lab, a student encounters large numbers of fertilized eggs. She rears some
of the eggs in the laboratory for further study and finds that the blastopore becomes the mouth. The embryo
develops into a trochophore larvae and eventually has a coelom. These eggs probably belonged to a(n)
a. annelid
d. nematode
b. echinoderm
e. arthropod
c. mollusk
Which molluscan class includes members that undergo embryonic torsion?
a. Polyplacophora
d. Gastropoda
b. Bivalvia
e. all molluscan classes have this characteristic
c. Cephalopoda
10. While snorkeling, a student observes an active marine animal that has a series of muscular tentacles bearing
suckers associated with its head. Segmentation is not observed, but a pair of large, well-developed eyes is
evident. The student is observing an animal belonging to which class?
a. Gastropoda
d. Polychaeta
b. Cephalopoda
e. Bivalvia
c. Polyplacophora
11. Which of the following is not characteristic of nematodes?
a. They play an important role in
d. They have an alimentary canal.
e. Many species are parasitic.
b. They have both circular and longitudinal
c. They have a pseudocoelom.
12. All of the following can be used to distinguish a nematode worm from an annelid worm except
a. type of body cavity
d. number of embryonic tissue layers
b. number of muscle layers in the body wall
e. presence of an alimentary canal
c. presence of segmentation
13. A student observes a worm-like organism crawling about on dead organic matter. Later, the organism sheds its
outer covering. One possibility is that the organism is a larval insect (like a maggot). On the other hand, it might
be a member of the phylum ______________________. One way to distinguish between the two possibilities is
by looking for the presence of _________________________.
a. Platyhelminthes; a cuticle of chitin
d. Nematoda; a circulatory system
b. Nematoda; an alimentary canal
e. Annelida; muscle in the body wall
c. Annelida; a body cavity
14. Skeletal structures that are entirely or partly composed of calcium carbonate can be found in some members of the
following except
a. sponges
d. arthropods
b. coral animals
e. nematodes
c. mollusks
15. Among the invertebrates, arthropods are unique in possessing
a. a cuticle
d. wings
b. a ventral nerve cord
e. segmented bodies
c. open circulation
16. You find a small animal with eight legs crawling up your bedroom wall. Closer examination will probably reveal
that this animal has
a. antennae
d. A and C
b. no antennae
e. B and C
c. chelicerae
17. Which of the following characteristics most likely explains why insects are so successful at dispersing to distant
a. hemocoel
d. chewing mandibles
b. wings
e. internal fertilization
c. jointed appendages
18. The possession of two pairs of antennae is a characteristic of
a. spiders
d. millipedes
b. insects
e. crustaceans
c. centipedes
19. A stalked, sessile marine organism has several feathery feeding structures surrounding an opening through which
food enters. The organism could potentially be a cnidarians, a lophophorate, a tube-dwelling worm, a crustacean
or an echinoderm. Finding which of the following in this organism would allow the greatest certainty of
a. the presence of what seems to be radial
d. a water vascular system
e. a nervous system
b. a hard covering made partly of calcium
c. a digestive system with mouth and anus
20. All of the following animal groups include terrestrial like forms except
a. Mollusca
d. Arthropoda
b. Crustacea
e. Annelida
c. Echinodermata
21. In a tide pool, a student encounters an organism with a hard outer covering that contains much calcium carbonate,
an open circulatory system and gills. The organism could potentially be a crab, a shrimp, a barnacle or a bivalve.
Which structure below would allow for the most certain identification?
a. a mantle
d. a proboscis
b. a heart
e. eyes
c. a body cavity
22. Which of the following is not a primary dispersal form of its group?
a. the adults of bivalves
d. the adults of insects
b. the medusa of hydrozoans
e. the larvae of sponges
c. the larvae of echinoderms
23. Which of the following is not a shared characteristic of all chordates?
a. pharyngeal gill slits
d. dorsal, hollow nerve cord
b. post-anal tail
e. four-chambered heart
c. notochord
24. A new species of aquatic chordate is discovered that closely resembles an ancient form. It has the following
characteristics: external armor of bony plates, no paired fins, and a suspension-feeding mode of nutrition. In
addition to these, it will probably have which of the following characteristics?
a. legs
d. metamorphosis
b. no jaws
e. endothermy
c. an amniotic egg
25. Which of these statements accurately describes a similarity between sharks and fishes?
a. The skin is typically covered by flattened
d. They have a lateral line that is sensitive to changes
bony scales.
in water pressure.
b. They are equally able to exchange gases
e. A swim bladder helps control buoyancy.
with the environment while stationary.
c. They are highly maneuverable due to
their flexibility.
26. What should be true of fossils of the earliest tetrapods?
a. They should show evidence of internal
d. They should be transitional forms with the
fossils of chondrichthyans that lived at the same
b. They should show evidence of having
produced shelled eggs.
e. They should feature the earliest indications of the
c. They should indicate limited adaptation
appearance of jaws.
to life on land.
27. What permits reptiles to thrive in arid environments?
a. Their bright coloration reflects the
d. Their scales contain the protein keratin, which
intense UV radiation.
helps prevent dehydration.
b. A large number of prey and a limited
e. They have an acute sense of sight, especially in
number of predators are available in the
bright sunlight.
c. A cartilaginous endoskeleton provides
needed flexibility for locomotion on sand.
28. Which of these is not considered an amniote?
a. amphibians
d. egg-laying mammals
b. non-avian reptiles
e. placental mammals
c. birds
29. Why is the discovery of the fossil Archaeopteryx significant? It supports the
a. phylogenetic relatedness of birds and
d. idea that the first birds were ratites
e. hypothesis that some extinct reptiles were
b. contention that birds are much older than
we originally thought
c. claim that mammals and dinosaurs coexisted
30. During chordate evolution, what is the sequence (from earliest to most recent) in which the following structures
1. amniotic egg
2. paired fins
3. jaws
4. swim bladder
5. four-chambered heart
a. 2, 3, 4, 1, 5
d. 2, 1, 4, 3, 5
b. 3, 2, 4, 1, 5
e. 2, 4, 3, 1, 5
c. 3, 2, 1, 4, 5
31. Structures that are made of keratin include which of the following?
a. avian feathers
d. A and C only
b. reptilian scales
e. A, B and C
c. mammalian hair
32. Differentiation of teeth is greatest in
a. sharks
d. reptiles
b. bony fishes
e. mammals
c. amphibians
33. Which of these would a paleontologist be most likely to do in order to determine whether a fossil represents a
reptile or a mammal?
a. Look for the presence of milk-producing
d. Use molecular analysis to look for the protein
b. Look for the mammalian characteristics
e. Examine the teeth
of a four-chambered heart and a
c. Because mammals are eutherians, look for
evidence of a placenta.
34. Which of the following groupings do not apply to both dogs and humans?
a. class Mammalia
d. kingdom Animalia
b. order Primates
e. subphylum Vertebrata
c. phylum Chordata
35. In which vertebrates is fertilization exclusively internal?
a. chondricthyans, osteichthyans and
d. reptiles and mammals
e. reptiles and amphibians
b. amphibians, mammals and reptiles
c. chondricthyans, osteichthyans and reptiles
36. Vertebrates and tunicates share
a. jaws adapted for feeding
d. an endoskeleton that includes a skull
b. a high degree of cephalization
e. a notochord and a dorsal, hollow nerve cord
c. the formation of structures that form the
neural crest
37. Which of the following could be considered the most recent common ancestor of living tetrapods?
a. a sturdy-finned, shallow-water, lobe-fin
d. a salamander that had legs supported by a bony
whose appendages had skeletal supports
skeleton but moved with the side-to-side bending
similar to those of terrestrial vertebrates
typical of fishes
b. an armored, jawed placoderm that had
e. an early terrestrial caecilian whose legless condition
two sets of paired appendages
had evolved secondarily
c. an early ray-finned fish that developed
bony skeletal supports in its paired fins
38. Unlike eutherians, both monotremes and marsupials
a. lack nipples
d. are found in Australia and Africa
b. have some embryonic development
e. include only insectivores and herbivores
outside the mother’s uterus
c. lay eggs
39. Mammals and living birds share all of the following characteristics except
a. endothermy
d. teeth specialized for diverse diets
b. descent from common amniotic ancestor
e. the ability of some species to fly
c. a dorsal, hollow nerve cord
40. Chondrichthyans can be distinguished from osteichthyans by the
a. presence in osteichthyans of a skull
d. absence in chondrichthyans of a swim bladder
b. presence in osteichthyans of a lateral line
and lungs
c. presence in chondrichthyans of unpaired fins
e. absence in chondrichthyans of paired sensory organs
For the following questions, match the description with the correct phylum below. Each choice may be used once, more
than once or not at all.
a. Cnidaria
d. Arthropoda
b. Annelida
e. Echinodermata
c. Mollusca
protostomes that have an open circulatory system and an exoskeleton of chitin ________
protostomes with a unique drape of tissue that may secrete a shell _________
a diploblastic phylum of aquatic predators _________
organisms that have a water vascular system ________
protostomes that have a closed circulatory system and obvious segmentation ________
For the following items, match the vertebrate groups below with the descriptions that follow. Each choice may be used
once, more than once or not at all.
a. amphibians
d. mammals
b. reptiles
e. aves
c. chondrichthyans
their scales closely resemble teeth in both structure and origin ________
internal fertilization, amniotic egg, skin that resists drying, heavy bones ________
three major groups: egg-laying, pouched and placental ________
may have lungs, or gills, and may use skin as a respiratory surface ________
honeycombed bones, females with one ovary , no teeth _________