Think about your personal timeline/periodization.
Consider you’ve looked like over the course of your
life, your temperament, and the things you believe are
 What changed over those years, and what stayed
the same about you? Why did those specific aspects
change, and why did other elements about you stay
the same?
Change & Continuity
Over Time Essay
What is the CCOT essay?
 An essay discussing characteristics that
changed and stayed the same in a given
region during a period of time.
(like comparing, but across time rather than region)
 Change & continuity over time essays require
describing the history of a place
What is the CCOT essay?
Has 5 REQUIRED elements
Addressing both changes & continuities
Thesis statement
Supporting the thesis
Using global historical context
Analyzing the process of change/continuity
AP = Address the Prompt
 Understanding the question & answer the
question as asked is fundamental to success
– Circle key words in the question:
• Time frame
• Topic
• Region
– Consider:
1. What time period is the question referencing?
2. What do I know about this time period?
3. What is the motive behind the question?
Defining the Requirements
The 3 obvious…
Required Element:
Answer the Question
 CCOT = address both changes & continuities
– Must have at least 1 accurate change &
1 accurate continuity in body of essay
• Changes are easy, but…
• Continuities
– Should BE true for majority (all?) of period
– Should NOT be common knowledge
Required Element:
 Must restate location & time period from prompt
 Must be analytical
– ie: directly answers the question by naming in what
way the topic changed & remained the same
– Remember:
• Lays out an argument
• 2-4 controlling ideas
Required Element:
 Give multiple, specific examples to support
thesis claims (requires that you know history)
– Evidence, Details, “Such as…”
• Names of people, goods traded, events
– Try to use evidence from entire time period
• Early in period? Middle of period? End of period?
Defining the Requirements
…& the 2 tricky
Required Element:
Analysis of Process
 Explain how & why changes/continuities are
– Try to aim for the root or underlying theme
• “Because”
– Common triggers:
• New technology
• Population change
• Interaction (invasion, trade, migration)
• Isolation
Required Element:
World Historical Context
 Explain how broader region impacted area in
 Explain how area in question impacted
broader world
– about making connections
Maximize Scores
Mostert Rule of 3
 Aim for:
– Combination of 2 changes/1 continuity or 1 / 2
– 3 prong thesis
– 3 pieces of evidence per paragraph
– 3 reasons for change/continuity
– 3 contextualizations
Practice CCOT - Review
 Analyze the cultural and political changes
and continuities in ONE of the following
civilizations during the last centuries of the
classical era.
– China, 100 CE to 600 CE
– Roman, 100 CE to 600 CE
– Indian, 300 CE to 600 CE
Required Element:
Thesis - examples
 In the classical era between 100AD and 600AD,
the Roman civilization experienced many
political and cultural changes and continuities.
The Roman government went from a republic to
Empire dominance that crumbled in 476. But
cultural aspects of the Roman Empire remained
the same.
– Between 100 CE and 600 CE, the Roman empire
underwent a change in government as the empire
collapsed due to corruption within. Also, the
influence of Christianity increased greatly.
However, the “Eastern Roman Empire”, the
Byzantines, kept the culture going.
The Hard Stuff
Required Element:
Answer the Question
 Establish a baseline before describing the
changes that occur
 When planning consider that change often
happens in steps
Practice CCOT - Music
American music through the ages –
Dani California
 Based on the music video, analyze the
changes and continuities in American music
between 1950 and today.
Practice CCOT - Superman
 Based on the article, analyze the changes
and continuities in Superman between 1940
and today.
Practice CCOT - Review
 Analyze the changes and continuities in
Indian Ocean commerce between 650 and
Practice CCOT - Review
 Analyze the social and economic
transformations that occurred in the Atlantic
world as a result of new contacts among
Western Europe, Africa, and the Americas
from 1492 to 1750.
What is the CCOT essay?
Steps to Answering the Question
1. Know how the essay is graded
2. Break down the question
3. Remember the Rule of 3
4. Use solid paragraph structure
Step: #1 Know Rubric
 Split rubric= must get all 7 core points
before earning expanded points
– Focus on 7 core points
 Scored based on value-added= points are
not deducted, they are only awarded for
positive contributions
Step: #2 Understand Question
 Read the question accurately & plan
– Underline directive word= describe v. compare v.
analyze v. evaluate v. to what extent
– Establish boundaries for writing= time period & region
– Recall prior knowledge= note any info that you
remember within the boundaries
 Analysis?
– do not simply look at a situation simply at face
value but look for connections between
– the recognition of patterns, relationships, or
hidden meaning
Step: #3 Rule of 3
 3 controlling ideas in thesis
 3 body paragraphs
 3 supporting details per paragraph
 3 examples of context – 1 per paragraph
 3 causes of change or continuity – 1 per
Step: #4 Paragraph Org
 Topic sentence introducing change or
 Context
 Baseline
 Evidence (beginning, middle, end of period)
 Cause of change/continuity
Finished Product – Formal Essay
– There are requirements specific to AP, but keep
in mind this is about becoming a good writer
 Proper Organization & Accuracy
– Introduction, 3 body ¶‘s, Conclusion
– Use topic sentences
– Restates thesis in conclusion
 Proper Style & Conventions
– Don’t use I, me, you, or abbreviations
– Aim for proper spelling and punctuation
because errors can cloud your argument
Review Chapter 16 - Thesis
 Analyze the changes and continuities in the
world economic network between 1450 and
 Analyze the changes and continuities in
Europeans’ relationships with outside
cultures between 1450 and 1750.
 Analyze the changes and continuities in
empire building between 600 and 1750.
Practice CCOT - HW
 Complete 1 practice CCOT essay
– Need: Thesis, 3 pictures with captions to support
thesis, 1 context, 1 reason
 Options:
– Trace the CCOT in a major river from mountain
source to its mouth at the sea
– Trace the CCOT in the metamorphosis from
tadpoles to frogs
– Trace the CCOT in superman
– Trace the CCOT in your life
1. Consider when you were born. What did you look
like? What was your temperament? What was
important to you?
2. Consider yourself at age 5. What did you look
like? What was your temperament? What was
important to you?
3. Consider yourself at age 15. What do you look
like? What’s your temperament? What’s
important to you?
4. What changed over those years, and what stayed
the same about you? Finally, why did those