Juan Tirado CIT 101 Shin Liu Chapter 6 PowerPoint Solutions 1. Define input and input devices. Input is any data or instructions that are used by a computer. They can come directly from you or from other sources. Input devices are hardware used to translate words, numbers, sounds, images and gestures that people understand into a form that the system unit can process. 2. Describe the different types of keyboard, pointing, scanning, image capturing, and audioinput devices. One of the most common ways to input data is by a keyboard. Keyboards convert numbers, letters, and special characters that people understand into electrical signals. These signals are sent to and processed by the system unit. There are many different types of keyboards. Traditional keyboards are full-size keyboards that are widely used on desktops and larger computers. Laptop keyboards are smaller than traditional keyboards and are widely used on laptop computers. The keys are typically smaller, do not include a numeric keypad, and do not have standard location for the function and navigation keys. Virtual keyboards are used primarily with mobile devices and tablets. They are not physical keyboards, but rather keys that are typically displayed on a screen and selected by touching their image on the screen. Thumb keyboards are used on smartphones and other small mobile devices. They are designed primarily to communicate via text and connecting to the web. They are very small. Pointing devices provide an intuitive interface with the system unit by accepting physical movements or gestures such as finger pointing or moving across a screen and converting these movements into machinereadable input. Scanning devices convert scanned text and images into a form that the system unit can process. Image capturing devices, on the other hand, create or capture original images. Audio-input devices convert sounds into a form that can be processed by the system unit. 3. Describe output and output devices. Output is processed data or information. Output typically takes the form of text, graphics, photos, audio, and/or audio. Output devices are any hardware used to provide or to create output. They translate information that has been processed by the system unit into a form that humans can understand. 4. Describe the features and different types of monitors and printers. Monitors are display screens that present visual images of text and graphics. A monitor offers many features, clarity being one of the more important. Clarity refers to the quality of the sharpness of the displayed images. It is a function of several monitor features, including resolution, dot pitch, contrast ratio, size, and aspect ratio. Resolution is an important feature. Images are formed on a monitor by a series of dots or pixels. Resolution is expressed as a matrix of these dots or pixels. Dot pitch is the distance between each pixel. Most newer monitors have a dot pitch of 0.30mm or less. Contrast ratios indicate a monitor’s ability to display images. It compares the light intensity of the brightest white to the darkest black. The higher the ratio, the better the monitor. Size, or active display area is measured by the diagonal length of a monitor’s viewing area. Aspect ratio indicates the proportional relationship between a display’s width and height. There are many types of monitors. Flat-panel monitors are the most widely used type of monitor today. They are thinner, more portable and require less power to operate. Two types of flat-panel monitors exist – LCD (liquid crystal display) and LED (light-emitting diode). LCD is widely used for older monitors and is typically less expensive while LED monitors use similar technology with a more advanced backlighting technology. E-book readers, another type of monitors, are traditional printed books in electronic format. Some monitors are used for specialized applications, such as making presentations and watching television. Digital or interactive whiteboards are specialized devices with a large display connected to a computer or projector. The computer’s desktop is display on the digital whiteboard and controlled by using a special pen, a finger or some other device. High-definition television delivers a much clearer and more detailed wide-screen picture than regular television. Because the output is digital, users can readily freeze video sequences to create high-quality still images. Cathode-ray tubes are similar in size and technology to older televisions. They have been replaced by flat-panel monitors. Printers translate information that has been processed by the system unit and present the information on paper. Printer output is often called hard copy. Features of printers include resolution, color capability, speed, memory, and duplex printing. Color capability is provided by most printers today. Users typically have the option to print either with just black ink or with color. Speed is measured in the number of pages printer per minute. Memory within a printer is used to store printing instructions and documents waiting to be printed. Duplex printing allows automatic printing on both sides of a sheet of paper. There are many different types of printers. Inkjet printers spray ink at high speed onto the surface of paper. This processed produces high-quality images in a variety of colors, making it ideal for printing photos. A laser printer uses a technology similar to that used in a photo-copying machine. Laser printers use a laser light beam to produce images with excellent letter and graphics quality. 3-D printers, also known as additive manufacturing, create three-dimensional shapes by adding very thin layer after layer of material unit until the final shape is fully formed. There are also cloud printers, thermal printers, and plotters. Cloud printers are printers connected to the internet that provide printing services to others on the Internet. Thermal printers use heat elements to produce images on heat-sensitive papers. These printers are widely used with ATMs and gasoline pumps to print receipt. Plotters are special-purpose printers for producing a wide range of specialized output. Using output from graphics tablets and other graphical input devices, plotters create maps, images, and architectural and engineering drawings. 5. Describe audio and video devices including Bluetooth technology. Audio-output devices translate audio information from the computer into sounds that people can understand. The most widely used audio-output devices are speakers and headsets. These devices connect to a sound card within the system unit. This connection can be by cable to an audio jack on the system unit, or the connection can be wireless. Wireless connections typically use Bluetooth technology. This type of connection requires special Bluetooth-enabled speakers and/or headsets. 6. Discuss combination input and output devices, including multifunctional devices, Internet telephones, and virtual reality headgear and gloves. Many devices combine input and output capabilities. Sometimes this is done to save space. Other times it is done for very specialized applications. These applications include multifunctional devices, internet telephones and virtual reality headgear and gloves. Multifunctional devices typically combine the capabilities of a scanner, printer, fax, and copy machine. These multifunctional devices offer a cost and space advantage. Internet telephones are specialized input and output devices for receiving and sending voice communication. Virtual reality is an artificial, or simulated, reality created in 3-D by computers. The headgear has earphones and three-dimensional stereoscopic screens. The gloves have sensors that collect data about your hand movements. Coupled with software, this interactive sensory equipment lets you immerse yourself in a computer-generated world. 7. Define ergonomics, and describe ways to minimize physical discomfort, and discuss design issues with portable computers. Ergonomics is defined as the study of human factors related to things people use. It is concerned with fitting the task to the user rather than forcing the user to contort to do the task. For computer users and manufacturers this means designing input and output devices to increase ease of use and to avoid health risks. Other recommendations to avoid physical discomfort are to make the easier on the eyes by taking a 15-minute break every hour or two to help avoid back and neck problems by making sure your equipment is adjustable. Portable computers offer design issues when it comes to accommodating to ergonomics. For example, when the keyboard on laptops is appropriately positioned, the screen is too low. With tablets, because they are flat and cause the user to improperly align his or her head, they tend to receive back or neck pain.