Lecture45-PPT1 - UBC Psychology's Research Labs

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Psychology 320: Gender Psychology Lecture 45

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Reminder The midterm exam is scheduled for February 21 st multiple choice questions) and February 23 rd (Part A: (Part B: short answer questions) 2

Announcements 1. I will hold additional office hours in preparation for the February exam: Tuesday,

February 8

: 11:00-12:30 Wednesday,

February 9

: 1:00-3:00 Friday,

February 11

: 11:30-1:30 Please note that my afternoon office hours (3:30-4:30) on Friday, February 11 th , are cancelled this week.

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2. CIHR’s Institute of Gender and Health is scheduled for February 23rd, 11:00 1:00, at UBC’s Vancouver campus. Speakers will discuss gender and sex in health research. For more information and to register for the event, please visit: http://www.grantfacilitation.ubc.ca/2011/01/27/cihr institute-of-gender-and-health-presentation-feb-23 11am-1pm-ubc/ . 4

3. It is Outweek at UBC. As part of Outweek, an interdisciplinary student academic event on sexuality(ies) and gender(s) is being held on February 8 th , from 4:00-7:00, in the Penthouse Lounge of the Graduate Student Society (GSS) building. At this event, students from all over the university will present their work on queer and trans issues to a broad audience of students, faculty members, staff, and community members. For more information about Outweek and this event, please visit: http://www.prideubc.com/content/ .

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Invitational Office Hour Invitations, by Student Number for February 11 th 11:30-1:30 Kenny 2517 10280071 10629079 66762089 67547083 67857060 6

Education, Careers and Work: 1. What sex differences in education have been found in other countries?

2. How do females and males divide occupational and domestic labour?

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By the end of today’s class, you should be able to: 1. discuss the social benefits associated with educating females in developing countries.

2. review recommendations to increase educational opportunities for females in developing countries.

3. describe contemporary employment rates and domestic labour contributions among females and males.

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What sex differences in education have been found in other countries?

• Although females and males have approximately equal access to education in Canada and other industrialized countries, large sex differences in access to education exist in other countries.

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• It is estimated that, across the globe, 75 million fewer girls are in school than boys (Smith, 2006).

• The greatest sex disparities in education access and attainment are found in the Middle East, South Asia, and sub Saharan Africa (UN Children’s Fund, 2007).

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Ratio of Girls to Boys Enrolled in Primary and Secondary Education Around the World (World Bank, 2002) Afghanistan Bangladesh Bulgaria Cambodia Canada Ethiopia Ghana India Iraq Morocco Nicaragua Nigeria United States Yemen Country Ratio of Girls to Boys 45.6

104.7

97.5

83.9

99.8

69.0

88.6

78.6

76.3

85.1

105.3

80.0

100.4

55.6

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Percentage of All College and University Students Who are Female Across the World (United Nations, 2005) Argentina Australia Canada Ethiopia India Iran Israel Japan Kenya Morocco Russia Saudi Arabia Turkey United States Vietnam Country Percent Who Are Women 59 54 56 26 39 49 56 45 34 44 57 58 41 56 42 12

• Many societal benefits arise from the education of females (e.g., reduced gender inequality, healthier offspring). • The UN Children’s Fund (2007) suggests the following strategies to enhance educational access for females across the globe: 13

1. Build more schools, especially in rural areas.

2. Lower costs of educating children.

3. Teach parents about the importance of educating girls.

4. Provide programs to prevent teenage pregnancy.

5. Encourage teen mothers to stay in school.

6. Attach day-care centres to schools.

7. Recruit more female teachers.

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How do females and males divide occupational and domestic labour?

• Over the past several decades, women’s participation in the paid labour force has increased steadily. • Today, women comprise 48% of the Canadian labour force (Statistics Canada, 2010).

• 66% of these women have young children.

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Women and Men as a Percentage of Total Employment (Almey, 2006; Statistics Canada, 2010) 30 20 10 0 70 60 50 40 1979 1989 1999 2009 Female Male 16

Percentage of Women with Children Under the Age of Three Who Are Employed (Almey, 2006) 30 20 10 0 70 60 50 40 1976 1986 1996 2006 17

• Nevertheless, it remains the case that:  females are less likely than males to be employed: 58% of Canadian women vs. 68% of Canadian men are employed (Almey, 2006).

 females are more likely than males to be employed in part-time positions: 70% of part-time workers are female (Almey, 2006).

 few males — 7% —assume the role of “househusband” (Smith, 2007).

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 females are more likely than males to be employed in teaching, health, clerical/administrative, and sales/service occupations: 67% of employed females vs. 30% of employed males work in these occupations (Almey, 2006).  females are more likely than males to perform domestic activities (e.g., housework, cooking), irrespective of their employment status: 19

Proportion of Household Labour Performed as a Function of Sex and Economic Dependence (Greenstein, 2000) 0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0 Wives Husbands -1 -0.5

0 0.5

Wife’s Economic Dependence (-1=High, 1=Low) 1 20

 In households where women are employed, domestic labour is more likely to be divided on the basis of gender than in households where women are not employed (Ortega & Tanaka, 2004).

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 “Breadwinner” wives do more domestic work than wives who earn salaries similar to their husbands.

Economically-dependent husbands do less domestic work than husbands who earn salaries similar to their wives. Explanation: Deviance neutralization (Greenstein, 2000).

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Education, Careers and Work: 1. What sex differences in education have been found in other countries?

2. How do females and males divide occupational and domestic labour?

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