Westminister University, London 21-09-2012 The impact of Localism Act on London Planning: Towards a radical decentralisation? A perspective from Italy Francesco Berni Planner and Urban designer at Regione Toscana Politecnico di Milano PhD [email protected] [email protected] +39 3281885418 The impact of Localism Act on London Planning: Towards a radical decentralisation? A perspective from Italy 1. The Localism Act: a short introduction 2. The planning decentralisation process in Italy and the new season of structural reform 3. The experience of Tuscany planning model 4. Towards a responsible localism in London: Coherence and coordination The impact of Localism Act on London Planning: Towards a radical decentralisation? A perspective from Italy 1 Localism Act introduces major changes in planning system in the hands of Local government in England. 1)Scope: No bureaucracy, more democracy, transparency and efficacy. 2)Key points: -Abolition of Regional Spatial Strategies RSS (localism Act 2011) in England -Partial strengthening of Strategic planning in London (housing, regeneration)* - Introduction of Neighbourhood planning *Part 8 Chapter 1 Localism Act 2011 The impact of Localism Act on Planning: Towards a radical decentralisation? A perspective from Italy 1 And in London... The Localism Act confirms the distinctive characteristics of London where the strategic planning has not been abolished, unlike other cities in England. The strategic planning in London according with its nature of global city region, must be guaranteed so as to improve urban sustainable development, social inclusivity and cohesion, as well as economic benefits. Also, we should not forget that: London region is one of the few places in the world where it is possible to see the Howard-Geddes-Mumford vision of the world made actual* *Peter Hall, Cities of Tomorrow 1988 The impact of Localism Act on Planning: Towards a radical decentralization? A perspective from Italy And in London... ... as the rest of England, The Localism Act introduces the neighbourhood planning level The new planning system NPPF London Plan LDF ? Neighbourhood Plan 1 The impact of Localism Act on Planning: Towards a radical decentralisation? A perspective from Italy 2 In Italy, the decentralisation process in planning began in 1971 with the establishment of a new government level: the Region. The reform of Italian Constitution in 2001 was significant as it establish that planning was a common thread between Central and Regional government Italy there three planning authority: 1.Region 2. Province 3. Municipality + The national planning law wrote in 1942, represents the general framework for regional and local planning. It has been updated progressively with other laws focus on specific topics. In the 1990s, within the overall process of devolution, the role of regional governments in Italy has become more important in same policy areas including in planning matters. The impact of Localism Act on Planning: Towards a radical decentralisation? A perspective from Italy 2 The economic crises and new season of reform: stop the decentralisation process? Sept 2012, the Central government published a new bill focused on saving the rural land against the urban sprawl by establishing at a national target for the maximum extension of rural land which could be used for urban development shared for each region. The regional target is shared by each municipalities and re-establish every 10 years. July 2012, the Central Government decided to save only provinces which have a population of at least 350,000 and a land area of 2,500 square kilometres. The provinces which did not respect the new standards set by the national law would be unified into larger areas. The impact of Localism Act on Planning: Towards a radical decentralization? A perspective from Italy Case study: Tuscany Region Tuscany has particularly dynamic and innovative planning activity in compare to others Italian region. Tuscany introduced with the Regional Law 05/1995 an innovative model of planning related to a stronger institutional co-operation at a the different spatial scales. Sup. 22.994 Km2 Pop. 3.734.355 The law was replaced by the new Regional Law 01/2005 which confirms the previous approach and supports the public participation on planning and coherence among different instruments in the planning process. 3 The impact of Localism Act on Planning: Towards a radical decentralization? A perspective from Italy 3 Case study: Tuscany Region Regional territorial plan Circular Planning model 2005 Territorial Coordination Plan Local Plan* Key points: -Coherence between the three Plans (guarantee by Sustainable Assessment process) - Devolution towards a stronger Local planning *Local Plan structure: Piano Strutturale (Structure Plan ) ● Temporally undefined (without a deadline) Identifying the strategic vision of the territory and the housing target ● Regolamento Urbanistico + ● ● ● Remain in effect 5 years Regulate the land use, quantity and location of new urban development The impact of Localism Act on Planning: Towards a radical decentralisation? A perspective from Italy Lack of coordination and integration between local policies on strategic planning issues such as urban development or countryside and environmental protection. (Regional Government does not have the power to coordinate local authorities on strategic transformations) This model (in some cases) generates Inefficiency with waste of opportunities and territorial resources (i.e. greenfield land). -Spatial regional project Region government should stimulate and support collaboration and integration between Local Authority Plans The Project is focused on strategic planning issues. Also, It is developed through the involvement of regional, provincial and local authority. - Local coordination plan The new plan could involve many local authority (voluntary). It will introduce by the reform of regional planning law which have been started since 2011 3 The impact of Localism Act on Planning: Towards a radical decentralisation? A perspective from Italy 4 Key words from Tuscany planning experience: Coordination / Coherence - Back to England ... The end of strategic planning? Looking for coordination The radical decentralisation could generate lack of integration between local plan and waste of territorial resources. -Back to London.... Towards responsible localism? Looking for coherence The neighbourhood planning could be a positive challenge for London planning as expression of democracy and efficiently but there are critical nodes to discuss and clarify. The impact of Localism Act on Planning: Towards a radical decentralisation? A perspective from Italy 4 Relation between LP and NP: how achieve the general conformity? The relation is not fully cleared. Generally, The NP should guarantee the coherence with LDF and LP especially for achieve social inclusion, economic equalities, urban development and assess the wider impacts of its transformations. London Plan LDF Neighbourhood Plan The GLA should have a coordination role and guarantee the integration of policies and actions between local plans and NPs. The OAPF could be an interesting place where Local communities would work together on strategic planning issues with the GLA. Relation between LDF and NP: top-down model? NP can propose more housing than Local Plan but not less. This point conflicts with the general aims of the Localism Act which wants to give more democracy and power to the local planning but in reality the NP does not have the power to refuse housing prevision from the highest level of planning.