The Impact Of Localism Act On London Planning

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Westminister University, London
21-09-2012
The impact of Localism Act on London Planning:
Towards a radical decentralisation? A perspective from Italy
Francesco Berni
Planner and Urban designer at Regione Toscana
Politecnico di Milano PhD
[email protected]
[email protected]
+39 3281885418
The impact of Localism Act on London Planning:
Towards a radical decentralisation? A perspective from Italy
1. The Localism Act: a short introduction
2. The planning decentralisation process in Italy and
the new season of structural reform
3. The experience of Tuscany planning model
4. Towards a responsible localism in London:
Coherence and coordination
The impact of Localism Act on London Planning:
Towards a radical decentralisation? A perspective from Italy
1
Localism Act introduces major changes in planning system in the hands of Local government
in England.
1)Scope:
No bureaucracy, more democracy, transparency and efficacy.
2)Key points:
-Abolition of Regional Spatial Strategies RSS (localism Act 2011) in England
-Partial strengthening of Strategic planning in London (housing, regeneration)*
- Introduction of Neighbourhood planning
*Part 8 Chapter 1 Localism Act 2011
The impact of Localism Act on Planning:
Towards a radical decentralisation? A perspective from Italy
1
And in London...
The Localism Act confirms the distinctive characteristics of London where the strategic
planning has not been abolished, unlike other cities in England.
The strategic planning in London according with its nature of global city region, must be
guaranteed so as to improve urban sustainable development, social inclusivity and
cohesion, as well as economic benefits.
Also, we should not forget that:
London region is one of the few places in the world where it is possible to see the Howard-Geddes-Mumford vision of
the world made actual*
*Peter Hall, Cities of Tomorrow 1988
The impact of Localism Act on Planning:
Towards a radical decentralization? A perspective from Italy
And in London...
... as the rest of England, The Localism Act introduces the neighbourhood planning level
The new planning system
NPPF
London Plan
LDF
?
Neighbourhood Plan
1
The impact of Localism Act on Planning:
Towards a radical decentralisation? A perspective from Italy
2
In Italy, the decentralisation process in planning began in 1971 with the establishment of a
new government level: the Region. The reform of Italian Constitution in 2001 was significant
as it establish that planning was a common thread between Central and Regional
government
Italy there three planning authority:
1.Region
2. Province
3. Municipality
+
The national planning law wrote in 1942, represents the general framework for regional and
local planning. It has been updated progressively with other laws focus on specific topics.
In the 1990s, within the overall process of devolution, the role of regional governments in
Italy has become more important in same policy areas including in planning matters.
The impact of Localism Act on Planning:
Towards a radical decentralisation? A perspective from Italy
2
The economic crises and new season of reform: stop the decentralisation process?
Sept 2012,
the Central government published a new bill focused on saving the rural land against the
urban sprawl by establishing at a national target for the maximum extension of rural land
which could be used for urban development shared for each region. The regional target is
shared by each municipalities and re-establish every 10 years.
July 2012,
the Central Government decided to save only provinces which have a population of at least
350,000 and a land area of 2,500 square kilometres. The provinces which did not respect
the new standards set by the national law would be unified into larger areas.
The impact of Localism Act on Planning:
Towards a radical decentralization? A perspective from Italy
Case study: Tuscany Region
Tuscany has particularly dynamic and innovative planning activity in compare to others
Italian region.
Tuscany introduced with the Regional Law
05/1995 an innovative model of planning related to a
stronger institutional co-operation at a the different
spatial scales.
Sup. 22.994 Km2
Pop. 3.734.355
The law was replaced by the new Regional Law
01/2005 which confirms the previous approach and
supports the public participation on planning and
coherence among different instruments in the
planning process.
3
The impact of Localism Act on Planning:
Towards a radical decentralization? A perspective from Italy
3
Case study: Tuscany Region
Regional territorial plan
Circular Planning model 2005
Territorial Coordination Plan
Local Plan*
Key points:
-Coherence between the three Plans (guarantee by Sustainable Assessment process)
- Devolution towards a stronger Local planning
*Local Plan structure:
Piano Strutturale (Structure Plan )
●
Temporally undefined (without a deadline)
Identifying the strategic vision of the territory
and the housing target
●
Regolamento Urbanistico
+
●
●
●
Remain in effect 5 years
Regulate the land use, quantity
and location of new urban development
The impact of Localism Act on Planning:
Towards a radical decentralisation? A perspective from Italy
Lack of coordination and integration between local policies on strategic planning issues
such as urban development or countryside and environmental protection.
(Regional Government does not have the power to coordinate local authorities on strategic transformations)
This model (in some cases) generates Inefficiency with waste of opportunities and
territorial resources (i.e. greenfield land).
-Spatial regional project
Region government should stimulate and
support collaboration and integration
between Local Authority Plans
The Project is focused on strategic planning issues.
Also, It is developed through the involvement of regional,
provincial and local authority.
- Local coordination plan
The new plan could involve many local authority (voluntary).
It will introduce by the reform of regional planning law which
have been started since 2011
3
The impact of Localism Act on Planning:
Towards a radical decentralisation? A perspective from Italy
4
Key words from Tuscany planning experience: Coordination / Coherence
- Back to England ... The end of strategic planning? Looking for coordination
The radical decentralisation could generate lack of integration between local plan and waste of territorial resources.
-Back to London.... Towards responsible localism? Looking for coherence
The neighbourhood planning could be a positive challenge for London planning as expression of democracy and
efficiently but there are critical nodes to discuss and clarify.
The impact of Localism Act on Planning:
Towards a radical decentralisation? A perspective from Italy
4
Relation between LP and NP:
how achieve the general conformity?
The relation is not fully cleared. Generally, The NP should
guarantee the coherence with LDF and LP especially for achieve
social inclusion, economic equalities, urban development and
assess the wider impacts of its transformations.
London Plan
LDF
Neighbourhood Plan
The GLA should have a coordination role and guarantee the
integration of policies and actions between local plans and NPs.
The OAPF could be an interesting place where Local
communities would work together on strategic planning issues
with the GLA.
Relation between LDF and NP:
top-down model?
NP can propose more housing than Local Plan but not less. This
point conflicts with the general aims of the Localism Act which
wants to give more democracy and power to the local planning
but in reality the NP does not have the power to refuse housing
prevision from the highest level of planning.
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