Chapter 2: Basic Cost Terms and Concepts • Cost Terms - Fixed - Variable • Cost Concepts • Management Implications Cost Terms Fixed Costs: costs that remain constant regardless of the quantity of product produced. $ Output Variable Costs: costs that increase linearly and proportionately as production volume increases. $ Output Profit = (Sales Revenue-Variable Cost) - Fixed Cost Total Contribution Margin Cost Terms (Continued) • Cost Driver: Any activity or event that causes costs to be incurred. • Manufacturing Cost: Direct material (DM), direct labor (DL), and manufacturing overhead (MOH). • Sales and General Administrative Costs: All costs associated with running the business, excluding production costs. • Direct and Indirect Costs: Costs that can either be traced (direct) or not traced (indirect) to a specific department in the organization. • Controllable and Uncontrollable Costs: Costs used to describe the extent of a manager’s influence on cost. • Product/Period Cost: Refers to the timing which costs become expenses. Economic Terms • Opportunity Cost: Benefit lost because the choice of one action precludes another action. • Sunk Cost: Costs that have already been incurred and can not be altered by current or future decisions. • Differential and Incremental Cost: Difference in the costs incurred under two alternative actions. • Marginal Cost: Cost associated with producing one additional unit. • Average Cost per Unit: Total cost for the quantity produced, divided by the number of units produced. Bala’s Bare Bones Manufacturing Facility Direct Material Purchased Direct Material Storage Raw Materials It’s a Warehouse! Direct Material Used Finished Goods Direct Material WIP Inventory Manufacturing Overhead Costs Cost Concept Direct Material Inventory Work in Process Inventory Finished Goods Inventory Beginning Inventory $1,000 Beginning Inventory $40,000 Beginning Inventory $1,000 Purchases $79,000 Ending Inventory $2,000 Transfer to WIP $78,000 Direct Material $78,000 Transfer to Finished Goods Inventory $350,000 Goods Completed From WIP $350,000 Direct Labor $82,000 MOH Incurred $170,000 Ending Inventory $20,000 Ending Inventory $11,000 Cost of Goods Sold (shipped) $340,000 Storeroom Raw Material Inventory Allocation of Costs Direct Material Used (DMU) Factory WIP Inventory Direct Material Purchased (DMP) Direct Labor (DL) Manufacturing Overhead (MOH) Cost of Goods Manufactured (COM) Warehouse Finished Goods Inventory Cost of Goods Sold (COGS) Managerial Implications • Is it better to under or over-apply overhead? If OH is over-applied (allocated >actual), you will be “surprised” how well you actually did when making end of period adjustments. If OH is under-applied (allocated<actual), you will be “surprised” how well you thought you did when making end of period adjustments. • If your compensation or incentive plan is based on profit, which would you choose?