Chapter Three - Cengage Learning

Cultural and Social
Learning Objectives
• Define what culture is and demonstrate how various
components of culture affect marketing.
• Explain how different world religions affect marketing.
• Describe how family structure can vary and explain its
impact on marketing.
• Illustrate ways in which the educational system of a
country can affect marketers.
• Differentiate between monochronic and polychronic
cultures and explain the three temporal orientations.
• List and describe Hofstede’s dimensions of culture.
• Explain why language can be important in gaining true
understanding of a culture.
• Identify ways of adapting to cultural differences.
Chapter Overview
Defining culture
• Religion
• The family
• Education
• Attitudes toward time
• The Hofstede measures of culture
• Language and communication
• Social Relationships
• Overcoming the language barrier
• Adapting to cultural differences
Culture Defined
Culture is the collective programming of
the mind that distinguishes the members
of one category of people from another.
--Geert Hofstede
Religion and Marketing
• Western religions
– Gift-giving and Christmas
• December 25 or December 6?
– Kosher in Israel
• Elite chocolate targets the Orthodox
– Buying matzo: tradition versus price?
Christmas as a Global Phenomenon
• China
– Bars charge $25 for entrance on Christmas
Eve, hotels charge $180 for a Christmas
• Turkey
– Children stand in line in shopping centers,
waiting to sit on Santa’s lap and ask him for
– Stores sell Santa suits and statues
Marketing and Islam
• An important cultural force in the
Middle East, Asia, and Africa
• Islam
– Forbids interest
– Encourages modest dress
– Requires food to be halal
Marketing and Eastern
• Hinduism and Buddhism
– Vegetarians
• Shinto
– Prayers open the first
Starbucks abroad (Tokyo)
The Family
• Nuclear families
– Household sizes down in U.S. and Europe
• Extended families
– More important in developing world
– The importance of the Chinese clan
• Male-female roles
– House cleaning in Japan
Attitudes toward Time
• Monochronic versus polychronic
• Cultures and temporal orientation
• Work and leisure time
Hofstede Measures of Culture
Power distance
Uncertainty avoidance
Language and Communication
• Forms of address
• The context of language
– Low-context cultures
– High-context cultures
• Body language
• Showing emotions
Overcoming Language Barriers
• Translating and translators
• Translation problems
• Which language to learn?
Dealing with Culture Shock
• Be culturally prepared
• Be aware of local communication
• Mix with host nationals
• Be creative and experimental
• Be culturally sensitive
Dealing with Culture Shock (cont)
• Recognize complexities in host cultures
• See yourself as a culture bearer
• Be patient, understanding, and accepting
of yourself and your hosts
• Be realistic in your expectations
• Accept the challenge of intercultural