Cardiovascular (heart) Mid of Topic Test

Cardiovascular (heart) Mid of Topic Test
Assessment for learning. Please circle the grade you wish to achieve (20).
A = 16,
B = 14
C = 12,
D = 10,
1. The measurement of heart rate during training can provide valuable information to the
athlete, teacher or coach.
a. Sketch a graph onto the plan below to show how heart rate of an athlete who completes
a 30 minute aerobic training run. Show heart rate prior to the training run, during the
run and for ten minutes after the run.
HR (bpm)
Resting HR about 50-80bpm
Rise in HR prior to ex (anticipatory rise)
Steep rise in HR at beginning of ex
Plateau 115-180 bpm
Initial rapid fall in HR dur recovery
Followed by gradual decline
b. Describe how hormonal control is used to alter heart rate during the training run. (2)
 Adrenaline is realsed
 Stimulates SA node
 Increases heart rate instantly
 Also increase in strength of contraction therefore SV
2. During and after exercise, the performer’s heart rate will increase and decrease.
a. Describe how neural control regulated a performer’s heart rate.
 Barareceptors, blood pressure.
 Chemoreceptors – muscle chemistry
 Proprioreceptors – joint/muscle movement
 CCC medualla oblongata controls HR/send impulse
 Autonomic NS (ANS)
 Impulses sent via cardiac accelerator nerve, sympathetic control
 Impulses sent via vagus nerve, parasympathetic control
 SA node stimulated
Endurance (aerobic) performance is dependant upon the heart supplying blood to the muscles.
Describe the flow of blood through the heart during the cardiac cycle (diastole and systole).
 The atria/ventricles are relaxed
 Diastole last 0.5 seconds
 Blood flows into RA and LA
 Via pulmonary vein and vena cava
 Pressure rises and blood moves passively into ventricles through AV nodes (bi tri cuspid
 The atria contract
 Blood is forced into the ventricles
 Ventricles contract
 Bi and tri shut to stop back flow
 Blood forced through semi lunar valves through aorta and pulmonary artery
 Systole lasts 0.3 secs
3. The heart plays an essential role during prolonged exercise.
a. Define the terms ‘heart rate’, ‘stroke volume’ and ‘cardiac output’ giving approximate values
for each at rest
 Heart rate = number of times the heart beats in one minute (72bpm)
 Stroke volume = the volume of blood pumped/ejected by each ventricle each beat. (70ml)
 Cardiac Output = the volume of blood pumped/ejected by each ventricle in one minute
SV x HR = Q 5L/min
4. Explain the term ‘hypertrophy’ in relation to the heart and its effects on resting HR and SV.
How does this help develop a lifelong involvement in an active lifestyle.
Hypertrophy is the increase in size of the muscle heart wall.
Decreases resting HR
Increases resting SV
Therefore can maintain the same Q at rest with less effort strain
Can increase its potential to increase Q to supply O2 during exercise.
Lifelong involvement:
A more efficient and healthy heart, bradycardia, is under less effort/strain at rest and over the
period of one’s lifetime;
Arguably slows down the heart’s deterioration in efficiency (loss of elasticity) due to the natural
ageing process.
May improve the length of an individual’s quality of life (not necessarily longevity) in relation to
sustaining a more active and healthy lifestyle.