Name:_______________________________ Date:___________________ Cardiovascular (heart) Mid of Topic Test Assessment for learning. Please circle the grade you wish to achieve (20). A = 16, B = 14 C = 12, D = 10, E=8 1. The measurement of heart rate during training can provide valuable information to the athlete, teacher or coach. a. Sketch a graph onto the plan below to show how heart rate of an athlete who completes a 30 minute aerobic training run. Show heart rate prior to the training run, during the run and for ten minutes after the run. (4) 220 180 HR (bpm) 140 100 80 60 Prior Work Recovery Resting HR about 50-80bpm Rise in HR prior to ex (anticipatory rise) Steep rise in HR at beginning of ex Plateau 115-180 bpm Initial rapid fall in HR dur recovery Followed by gradual decline b. Describe how hormonal control is used to alter heart rate during the training run. (2) Adrenaline is realsed Stimulates SA node Increases heart rate instantly Also increase in strength of contraction therefore SV 2. During and after exercise, the performer’s heart rate will increase and decrease. a. Describe how neural control regulated a performer’s heart rate. Barareceptors, blood pressure. Chemoreceptors – muscle chemistry Proprioreceptors – joint/muscle movement CCC medualla oblongata controls HR/send impulse Autonomic NS (ANS) (3) Impulses sent via cardiac accelerator nerve, sympathetic control Impulses sent via vagus nerve, parasympathetic control SA node stimulated Endurance (aerobic) performance is dependant upon the heart supplying blood to the muscles. Describe the flow of blood through the heart during the cardiac cycle (diastole and systole). (4) Diastole: The atria/ventricles are relaxed Diastole last 0.5 seconds Blood flows into RA and LA Via pulmonary vein and vena cava Pressure rises and blood moves passively into ventricles through AV nodes (bi tri cuspid valves) Systole: The atria contract Blood is forced into the ventricles Ventricles contract Bi and tri shut to stop back flow Blood forced through semi lunar valves through aorta and pulmonary artery Systole lasts 0.3 secs 3. The heart plays an essential role during prolonged exercise. a. Define the terms ‘heart rate’, ‘stroke volume’ and ‘cardiac output’ giving approximate values for each at rest (3) Heart rate = number of times the heart beats in one minute (72bpm) Stroke volume = the volume of blood pumped/ejected by each ventricle each beat. (70ml) Cardiac Output = the volume of blood pumped/ejected by each ventricle in one minute SV x HR = Q 5L/min 4. Explain the term ‘hypertrophy’ in relation to the heart and its effects on resting HR and SV. How does this help develop a lifelong involvement in an active lifestyle. (4) Hypertrophy is the increase in size of the muscle heart wall. Decreases resting HR Increases resting SV Therefore can maintain the same Q at rest with less effort strain Can increase its potential to increase Q to supply O2 during exercise. Lifelong involvement: A more efficient and healthy heart, bradycardia, is under less effort/strain at rest and over the period of one’s lifetime; Arguably slows down the heart’s deterioration in efficiency (loss of elasticity) due to the natural ageing process. May improve the length of an individual’s quality of life (not necessarily longevity) in relation to sustaining a more active and healthy lifestyle.