THE LANGUAGE OF ANATOMY 1. Visible describe or demonstrate anatomical position 2. Use proper anatomical terminology to describe body directions, surfaces, and body planes. 3. Locate the major body cavities, list the chief organs in each cavity ANATOMICAL POSITION • • • • • • An initial reference point The body is erect Feet parallel Arms hanging at sides Palms facing forward Uncomfortable Directional Terms Allow medical personnel and anatomist to explain exactly where one body structure is in relation to another. Describe the location of the ears in relation to the nose The ears are to the right and left of the nose The ears are lateral to the nose Directional Terms Superior/ Inferior Term Definition Example Superior (cranial or cephalad) Toward the head end or upper part of the body; above The forehead is superior to the nose Inferior (caudal) Away from the The naval is head end or inferior to the toward the breastbone lower part of a structure of the body: below Directional Terms Ventral (anterior)/ Dorsal (posterior) Term Definition Example Ventral (anterior) Toward or at the front of the body; in front of The breastbone (sternum) is anterior to the spine Dorsal (posterior) Toward or at the backside of the body; behind The heart is posterior to the breast bone Directional Terms Medial/ Lateral Term Definition Example Medial Toward or at The heart is the midline of medial to the the body; on arm the inner side of Lateral Away from the midline of the body; on the outer side of The arms are lateral to the chest Intermediate Between a more medial and a more lateral structure The collarbone is intermediate between the breastbone and the shoulder Directional Terms Proximal/ Distal Term Definition Example Proximal Close to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk The elbow is proximal to the wrist (meaning that the elbow is closer to the shoulder or attachment point of the arm than the wrist) Distal Farther from the The knee is distal origin of a body to the thigh part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk Directional Terms Superficial (external)/ Deep (internal) Term Definition Example Superficial (external) Toward or at the body surface The skin is superficial to the skeleton Deep (internal) Away from the body surface; more internal The lungs are deep to the rib cage REGIONAL TERMS Anterior Body Landmarks Abdominal/ Umbilical: anterior body trunk inferior to the ribs Acromial: point of the shoulder Antebrachial: forearm Antecubital: anterior surface Axillary: armpit Brachial: arm (upper) Buccal: cheek Carpal: wrist Cervical: neck region Coxal: hip Crural: leg Deltoid: curve of the shoulder formed by the deltoid muscle Digital: fingers, toes Femoral: thigh Fibular: lateral part of the leg Frontal: forehead Inguinal: area where thigh meets body trunk; groin Mental: chin Nasal: nose area Oral: mouth Orbital: eye area Patellar: anterior knee Pelvic: area overlying the pelvis anteriorly Pubic: genital region Sternal: breast bone area Tarsal: ankle region Thoracic: chest Umbilical: naval REGIONAL TERMS Posterior Body Landmarks Calcaneal: heel of foot Cephalic: head Femoral: thigh Gluteal: buttock Lumbar: area of back between the ribs and hips; the loin Occipital: Posterior surface of the head or base of the skull Olecranal: posterior surface of the elbow Plantar: sole of the foot Popliteal: posterior knee area Sacral: area between the hips Scapular: shoulder blade region Sural: the posterior surface of the leg: the calf Vertebral: area of spinal column REGIONAL TERMS BODY PLANES AND SECTIONS • A plane is an imaginary line on the body. • Sections • • • • Sagittal – a cut a long the lengthwise or longitudinal, dividing the body into right and left parts (parasagittal) Median, or Midsagittal – a cut down the median of the body that spits the body into equal right and left halves Frontal/ Coronal – a cut along a lengthwise plane that divides the body or organ into anterior or posterior parts Transverse / Cross– a cut along a horizontal plane, dividing the body into superior and inferior parts BODY CAVITIES Dorsal Has 2 subdivisions Cranial cavity - brain Spinal cavity - spine Ventral Has 2 subdivisions Separated by the diphragm Thoracic cavity lungs & heart protected by the rib cage Lungs are separated by the mediastinum Heart , trachea, visceral organs Abdominopelvic cavity Abdominal cavity Stomach Liver Intestines Pelvic cavity Reproductive organs Bladder Rectum ABDOMINOPOELVIC CAVITY QUADRANTS The abdominopelvic cavity is divided into 4 quadrants RUQ – right upper quadrant RLQ – right lower quadrant LUQ – left upper quadrant LLQ – left lower quadrant 9 ABDOMINOPELVIC REGIONS UMBILICAL Centermost region, deep to and surrounding the umbilicus (navel) EPIGASTRIC Superior to the umbilical region HYPOGASTRIC (PUBIC) Inferior to the umbilical region RT. & LT. ILIAC or INGUINAL Lateral to the hypogastric region RT. & LT. LUMBER Lateral to the umbilical region RT. & LT. HYPOCHONDRIAC Flank the epigastric region and contain the lower ribs Right hypochondriac Region Epigastric Region Right hypochondriac Region Right lumbar Region Umbilical Region Left lumbar Region Right Iliac (inguinal) Region Hypogastric Region Left Iliac (inguinal) Region 9 ABDOMINOPELVIC REGIONS Other Body Cavities Oral & Digestive cavities Mouth Digestive Organs Continuous tube from mouth to anus Nasal Cavity Within and posterior to the nose Orbital Cavity Orbits in the skull that houses the eyes and presents them in an anterior position Middle Ear Cavity Contain tiny bones that transmit sound vibrations to hearing receptors in the middle ear.