Research Methods Overview of quantitative and qualitative methods
Quantitative Methods Survey methods Experimentation Social network analysis Data visualization Spatial analysis
Survey Methods Survey design Population and Sample Instrumentation Variables Analysis and interpretation Experimental design (or not)
Survey Design Why surveys?
What’s the purpose?
Population and Sample Identify your population Identify your sampling design (single stage, cluster) Identify your selection process (random, systematic, convenience) Will you stratify?
Population and Sample - Example Identify your population (MOSS K12 students) Identify your sampling design (single stage, cluster) (Cluster – draw from schools) Identify your selection process (random, systematic, convenience) (systematic) Will you stratify?
7 th and 8 th (Yes – 3 graders) rd and 4 th grade, 5 th and 6 th ,
Instrumentation Name the instrument you will use (your own design? Modified from another? In tact from another?) Describe its validity and reliability Cover letter Pilot testing Procedures for administering the survey
Instrumentation - Example Name the instrument you will use (DeWaters and Powers’ energy literacy assessment, 4H science process skills inventory, our own science identity scale) Describe its validity and reliability Cover letter Pilot testing Procedures for administering the survey (given when students arrive and after their inquiry presentations on Friday)
Variables Associate with items on your survey Identify independent, dependent
Analysis Response / non-response bias Descriptive analysis Inferential questions and hypothesis testing Data display
Experimental and Quasi Experimental Designs Pages 172 – 173 in Creswell
Qualitative Methods Characteristics of qualitative Naturalistic setting Researcher as instrument Multiple sources of data Inductive and deductive analysis Participants’ meanings Emergent design Holistic account Reflexivity (reflection)
Qualitative Data Collection Observation Interviews Document review Audio and video materials
Observations Complete participant Observer as participant Participant as observer Complete observer
Interviews Face to face Group Single person Phone / video / email
Data Recording Interview or observation protocol Record “field notes” Audio or video record interviews Transcribe interviews
Data Analysis Raw Data Organize data Read through data Code data Themes and Description Interpretation
Validity and Reliability in Qualitative Methods Triangulation Member checking Thick, rich description Clarify researcher perspective Negative case Prolonged time in the field Peer debriefing External audit