Chapter 13 Inequalities of Race and Ethnicity The Meaning of Race and Ethnicity When Worlds Collide: Patterns of Intergroup Relations Culture and Intergroup Relations Theories of Racial and Ethnic Inequality A Piece of the Pie Race and Ethnicity Race refers to an inbreeding population that develops distinctive physical characteristics. Human groups have exchanged genes through mating to such an extent that it is impossible to identify “pure” races. Race and Ethnicity Racism is based on the belief that an inherited trait is a mark of inferiority. Ethnic groups are populations that have a sense of group identity based on a distinctive cultural pattern and shared ancestry. Intergroup Relations Range from intolerance to tolerance and from genocide through assimilation. Genocide is almost always rationalized by the belief that the people who are being slaughtered are less than human. Expulsion in U.S. History Removal of Native Americans from their ancestral lands. Oriental exclusion movement of the nineteenth century. Detention of Japanese Americans during world war II. Slavery Called “the peculiar institution” because it has existed in some of the world’s greatest civilizations. Although African-American slaves gained their freedom during the Civil War, a long period of segregation followed. Assimilation: 3 Views Anglo-conformity - culturally distinct groups give up their culture and adopt the dominant culture. Melting pot - a social and biological merging of ethnic and racial groups. Cultural pluralism - culturally distinct groups retain their communities and their culture and still integrate into U.S. Society. Theories of Racial and Ethnic Inequality Social-psychological - patterns of discrimination stem from psychological orientations toward members of out-groups. Interactionist - see how hostility or sympathy toward other groups is produced by norms of interaction within and between groups. Theories of Racial and Ethnic Inequality Functionalist - seeks patterns of social integration that help maintain stability in a society. Conflict - traces the origins of racial inequality to conflict between classes in capitalist societies. Ecological - explore how conflict between groups develops and is resolved. Racial Inequality in the U.S. Factors: Racial prejudice and discrimination. High rates of family breakup. Structural changes in the U.S. Economy. Majority of blacks are in insecure working-class jobs or unemployed.