Irregular Verbs - mrwaldonsenglish

Irregular Verbs
Irregular Verbs
• An Irregular Verb is a verb that doesn’t follow
general rules for verb forms.
• Except for the verb be, all main verbs have 5
Verb Forms
• Base Form:
Usually I walk.
• Past Tense:
Yesterday I walked.
• Past Participle:
I have walked many times.
• Present Participle:
• - S Form:
I am walking right now.
He walks.
Irregular Verbs
• For regular verbs, the past-tense and pastparticiple forms end in –ed or –d.
• For irregular verbs, the past tense and past
participle are formed differently: rode, ridden;
began, begun.
• Here are some clues for you…
– The past tense always occurs alone, without a
helping verb.
– It always expresses action that occurred entirely in
the past: I rode to work yesterday. I walked to
work last Tuesday.
Past Participle
• The past participle is used with a helping verb.
• It forms the perfect tenses with has, have, or had.
– perfect tense - a tense of verbs used in describing
action that has been completed
• It forms the passive voice with be, am, is, was,
were, being, or been.
Irregular Verbs
Distinguishing Among the Forms of Lie
and Lay
• Writers and speakers frequently confuse the
various forms of lie and lay.
• Lie is an intransitive verb; it does not take a
direct object:
– The tax forms lie on the table.
• Lay is transitive; it does take a direct object:
– Please lay the tax forms on the table.
Standard Forms of Lie and Lay
Base Form Past Tense
Standard Forms of Lie and Lay
• Sue was so exhausted that she ---- down for a
• The patient had ---- in an uncomfortable
position all night.
• The prosecutor ---- laid the pistol on a table
close to the jurors.
• Letters dating from the Civil War were ---- in
the corner of the chest.
Use –s (or –es) endings on presenttense verbs that have third-person
singular subjects.
• When the subject of a sentence is thirdperson singular, its verb takes an –s or –es
ending in the present tense.
• All singular nouns (such as boy) and the
pronouns he, she, and it are third-person
singular. Indefinite pronouns (such as
everyone) are also third-person singular.
Irregular Verbs
First Person I know
2nd Person You know
3rd Person He/she/it knows
Boy knows
everyone knows
We know
You know
They know
Parents know
• Sulfur dioxide turn/turns leaves yellow,
dissolve/dissolves marble, and eat/eats away
iron and steel.
• I prepare/prepares program specifications and
logic diagrams.
• The dirt floors require/requires continual
Irregular Verbs (Third-Person Singular)
In nonstandard speech, the –s verb form has, does,
or doesn’t is sometimes replaced with have, do,
or don’t.
In standard speech, use has, does, or doesn’t with a
third-person singular subject.
* This respected musician always has/have a
message in his work.
* Do/Does she know the correct procedure for
the experiment?
* My uncle don’t/doesn’t want to change jobs
right now.
Do Not Omit –ed Endings on Verbs
• Speakers who do not fully pronounce –ed
ending sometimes omit them unintentionally
in writing.
• Failure to pronounce –ed endings is common
in many dialects and informal speech.
• When a verb is regular, both the past tense
and the past participle are formed by adding –
ed to the base form of the verb.
-ed Endings
• Use an –ed or –d ending to express the past tense
of regular verbs. The past tense is used when the
action occurred entirely in the past.
– Over the weekend, Ed fix/fixed his car
– Last summer my counselor advise/advised me to ask
my family for help.
• Past Participles are used in three ways:
– Following have, has, or had to form one of the perfect
– Following be, am, is, are, was, were, being, or been
– As adjectives modifying nouns or pronouns
Past Participles
• Robin has ask/asked me to go to California
with her.
• Though it is not a new phenomenon, domestic
violence is publicize/publicized more
frequently than before.
• All aerobics classes end in a cool-down period
to stretch tighten/tightened muscles.
The Subjunctive Mood
The Subjunctive Mood
• There are three moods in English:
– The Indicative – used for facts, opinions, and
– The Imperative – used for orders and advice
– The Subjunctive – used in certain contexts to
express wishes, requests, or conditions contrary to
Of these moods, the subjunctive is most likely
to cause problems for writers.
Forms of the Subjunctive
• In the subjunctive mood, present-tense verbs
do not change form to indicate the number
and person of the subject.
• Instead, the subjunctive uses the base form of
the verb with all subjects.
– It is important that you are/be prepared for the
– We asked that she drive/drives more slowly.
The Subjunctive Mood
• Also, in the subjunctive mood, there is only
one past-tense form of be: were (never was)
– If I was/were you, I’d proceed more cautiously.
Uses of the Subjunctive
• The subjunctive mood appears in only a few
contexts: in contrary-to-fact clauses beginning
with if or expressing a wish; in that clauses
following verbs such as ask, insist,
recommend, request, and suggest; and in
certain set expressions.
In Contrary-To-Fact Clauses With If…
• When a subordinate clause beginning with if
expresses a condition contrary to fact, use the
subjunctive mood.
– If I was/were a member of Congress, I would vote
for that bill.
– We could be less cautious if Jake was/were more
• The verbs in these sentences express conditions that do
not exist: The writer is not a member of Congress, and
Jake is not trustworthy
In Contrary-To-Fact Clauses With If…
• Do not use the subjunctive mood in if clauses
expressing conditions that may or may not
– If Dana wins the contest, she will leave for Spain in
In Contrary-to-Fact Clauses Expressing
a Wish…
• In formal English, the subjunctive is used in
clauses expressing a wish or a desire; in
informal speech, however, the indicative is
more commonly used.
– Formal – I wish that Dr. Vaughn were my
– Informal – I wish that Dr. Vaughn was my
In That Clauses Following Verbs Such
as Ask, Insist, Recommend, Request,
and Suggest
• Because requests have not yet become reality,
they are expressed in the subjunctive mood.
– Professor Moore insists that her students are/be
on time.
– We recommend that Lambert file/files form 1050