WORLD RELIGIONS JUDAISM 7.5 Trace Islam’s historical connections to Judaism and Christianity. B3,7 World Religions: Judaism ESSENTIAL QUESTION LEARNING TARGET What is religion? I can compare and contrast the five major world religions. A Few Introductory Facts • Judaism is the world’s oldest religion. • It was the first religion to teach belief in one God (monotheism). • The nation of Israel is the homeland of the Jewish people. FOLLOWERS OF JUDAISM • Followers of Judaism are called Jews. • There are over 18 million followers. • There are four main groups of Jews: – – – – Orthodox Hasidic Conservative Reform B4.3 GOD OF JUDAISM • Jews believe in the God (Yahweh) of the Old Testament of the Bible. • Jews believe God is the Creator of everything and that He is eternal. • Jews believe God will someday send a Messiah to unite them and lead them in His way. SACRED BOOK OF JUDAISM • The most sacred book of Judaism is called the Torah. • The Torah is the first 5 books of the Old Testament (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy) and was written by Moses in the Hebrew language. • The Talmud is a guide that explains the laws of the Torah. b5 JEWISH HOUSE OF WORSHIP • The Jewish house of worship is called a synagogue. • The synagogue has 3 functions: – House of Prayer – House of Assembly – House of Study • Rabbis (give the sermon) and cantors (lead music) help lead Jewish services. B2 JEWISH CUSTOMS & RITUALS • A mezuzah is a parchment inscribed with religious texts attached in a case to a doorpost in a Jewish home as a sign of faith. b6 JEWISH CUSTOMS & RITUALS • Bar mitzvah is a ceremony held when a Jewish boy is 13 and is therefore considered old enough to take responsibility for himself and his obedience to the Law. In Jewish religious terms he is considered an adult. JEWISH CUSTOMS & RITUALS • Yarmulkes (Yiddish) or kippahs (Hebrew) are the skull caps worn by Jewish men to demonstrate their submission to God. • The prayer shawl worn during prayer services is called a tallit. JERUSALEM • Jerusalem is the capital of Israel. • It is the location of the western wall of the Temple. • The western wall is known as the Wailing Wall. • This site is Judaism’s holiest place on earth and is a center of pilgrimage and prayer for Jews. BELIEFS ABOUT DEATH • Judaism teaches that death is not the end and that there is a world to come. (Precise details of the afterlife are not part of the Jewish belief.) • Bodies must be buried as soon as possible after death (usually within 24 hours). • A prayer known as the kaddish must be recited at the synagogue every day for 11 months after the death of a close relative.