Sci. 5-1
What is Energy?
Pages 116-123
A. Energy- is the ability to do work
and work is the transfer of energy
B. Both energy and
work are expressed in
Joules (J).
C. Kinetic Energy- the energy of
D. Kinetic energy depends on
E.Speed has a greater impact on
kinetic energy than does mass
because speed is squared.
F. Kinetic Energy formula
m = mass v= speed
G. Potential Energy- the energy an
object has because of its position or
shape. It has energy because work
has been already done to it.
H. Gravitational Potential Energy
happens when something has been
lifted. GPE = weight x height
Newtons x meters
Which is the same as work W=Fxd
I. Mechanical Energy- the total
energy of motion and position of
an object.
1)Mechanical Energy = Potential
Energy + Kinetic Energy
2) When potential energy increases,
kinetic energy decreases.
J. Six forms of energy are thermal,
chemical, electrical, sound, light,
and nuclear.
1) Thermal Energy (heat) – all
matter has particles in constant
motion. The hotter the object then
the faster the particles move.
2) Chemical Energy- the energy of
a compound that changes as its
atoms rearrange to form a new
3) Electrical Energy- the energy of
moving electrons. Electrons are
negatively charged particles of an
4) Sound Energy- caused by an
object’s vibrations. The object
vibrates which causes the air to
vibrate which causes your eardrum
to vibrate and you hear sound.
5) Light Energy- produced by
vibrations of electrically charged
particles, NOT ALL light can be
6) Nuclear Energy- produced by an
atom’s nucleus splitting or when two
nuclei join together.