Sci. 5-1 What is Energy? Pages 116-123 A. Energy- is the ability to do work and work is the transfer of energy B. Both energy and work are expressed in Joules (J). C. Kinetic Energy- the energy of motion. D. Kinetic energy depends on and E.Speed has a greater impact on kinetic energy than does mass because speed is squared. F. Kinetic Energy formula m = mass v= speed KE=mv 2 2 G. Potential Energy- the energy an object has because of its position or shape. It has energy because work has been already done to it. H. Gravitational Potential Energy happens when something has been lifted. GPE = weight x height Newtons x meters Which is the same as work W=Fxd I. Mechanical Energy- the total energy of motion and position of an object. 1)Mechanical Energy = Potential Energy + Kinetic Energy 2) When potential energy increases, kinetic energy decreases. J. Six forms of energy are thermal, chemical, electrical, sound, light, and nuclear. 1) Thermal Energy (heat) – all matter has particles in constant motion. The hotter the object then the faster the particles move. 2) Chemical Energy- the energy of a compound that changes as its atoms rearrange to form a new compound 3) Electrical Energy- the energy of moving electrons. Electrons are negatively charged particles of an atom. 4) Sound Energy- caused by an object’s vibrations. The object vibrates which causes the air to vibrate which causes your eardrum to vibrate and you hear sound. 5) Light Energy- produced by vibrations of electrically charged particles, NOT ALL light can be seen. 6) Nuclear Energy- produced by an atom’s nucleus splitting or when two nuclei join together.