www.centerforlearning.org
Advanced Placement
European History, Book 1
Lesson 30
The French Revolution
For information about this and other Center for Learning teaching resources, please contact
Customer Service at 800.767.9090 or [email protected]
© The Center for Learning. The worksheets in this book may be reproduced for academic purposes only and not for resale. Academic purposes refer to
limited use within classroom and teaching settings only.
*AP and Advanced Placement Program are registered trademarks of the College Entrance Examination Board, which was not involved in the production of
and does not endorse this product.
Lesson 30
The French Revolution:
Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity
Procedure
Objective
•
1. Explain that the modern political theories
of democracy, socialism, communism, and
fascism have their roots in the ideals of
the French Revolution. Explain that these
theories developed as a result of conflict
between liberals and conservatives that is
still ongoing.
To consider the concepts of liberty, equality, and fraternity as defined by the French
Revolution
Notes to the Teacher
The French Revolution was the most shattering revolution of modern times. It unleashed
a Pandora’s box of troubles, but also brought
into focus the concepts of liberty, equality, and
fraternity. These ideals have been championed
and opposed by radicals and reactionaries,
liberals and conservatives, and the left and
the right. This conflict gave rise to most of
the isms of the nineteenth and twentieth
centuries. Most modern political philosophies,
such as democracy, socialism, communism,
and fascism, have their origin in the flow
and counterflow of events and movements
surrounding the French Revolution and its
concepts of liberty, equality, and fraternity.
2. Distribute Handout 49, and have students
complete part A. Review responses.
Suggested Responses:
1. a. Liberty—the possession and free
exercise of self-government
b. Equality—the condition of enjoying
equal political, economic, and social
rights
c.
Fraternity—brotherhood
2. a. Count of Artois
Government—The role of government
is to rule the people with absolute
firmness in the style of Louis XIV.
The seeds of these ideas were written
into the Code Napoleon and moved across
Europe, where they took root among the
middle and lower classes. Hope for change
and a better society became the motivating
force of European culture. The conservative
looked back to the old society of birthright,
while the liberal looked forward to a society
of talent. The French Revolution placed in
motion this liberal/conservative conflict and
fed it into the mainstream, where it became
a permanent fixture of western civilization.
Social classes—The accepted division
of society into three estates should
be maintained.
Justice and law—Different laws
should apply to different classes,
and the higher classes should be
exempt from certain restrictions.
b. Madame Roland
Government—A limited monarchy is
the best form of government.
In this lesson, students write their own
definitions of liberty, equality, and fraternity,
based on an understanding of five representative characters of the French Revolution that
they have researched, and complete questions
for discussion. In order to develop a better
sense of the chronology of the Revolution, they
associate major events of that time with the
development of the concepts of liberty. equality, and fraternity. In conclusion, students
develop a thesis defining liberty, equality, and
fraternity, based on the events and thought
of the French Revolution.
Social classes—The social class
distinction between the nobility and
middle class must be eliminated;
however, complete equality of all
classes is merely a dream.
Justice and law—The same laws
should apply to all Frenchmen, and
justice should be meted out on this
basis.
207
From Advanced Placement European History, Book 1. Copyright © The Center for Learning (www.centerforlearning.org). Not for resale.
c.
3. Divide students into groups of four or five
to complete part B. Review responses.
Robespierre
Government—A republican form of
government is best, and the best
republican government is one run by
people sharing his political views.
Suggested Responses:
1. a. Count of Artois
Liberty—Liberty is the privilege of
birth.
Social classes—All social classes
are equal in theory; however, the
nobles and non-juring clergy as well
as all of his opponents should be
eliminated.
Equality—People are equal within
their classes.
Fraternity—The nobles of France are
fraternally allied with the aristocrats
of Europe but not with their fellow
Frenchmen.
Justice and law—Law is meant to
control anti-revolutionary forces.
d. Member of the Directory
b. Madame Roland
Government—Government should
be controlled by the middle class
to insure law and order.
Liberty—Liberty is defined in terms
of wealth.
Equality—All people are created
equal, but some are more equal than
others.
Social classes—Theoretically, all
people are equal; but it is in the best
interests of France for the business
and military interests to dominate.
Fraternity—The glory of France is
the brotherhood of man.
Justice and law—Law is meant
to restrain the violent segments of
society.
c.
Liberty—Liberty should be granted
to all citizens, especially those who
favor his views.
e. Napoleon
Government—Government should be
centralized in the hands of a single
person.
Equality—Equality must be enforced
even to the extent of eliminating
those in opposition.
Social classes—The military and
upper classes should determine the
best course for the nation.
Fraternity—All Frenchmen must work
together to continue the ideals of the
Revolution.
Justice and law—Equality before the
law and the concept of guilty until
proven innocent are fundamental
legal principles of France.
3. a. 4
l.
c.
10
m. 5
d. 19
n. 2
e. 15
o. 18
f.
p. 16
14
d. Member of the Directory
Liberty—Liberty is defined in terms
of wealth.
k. 11
b. 7
Equality—All people are created
equal, but some are more equal than
others.
13
g. 1
q. 9
h. 6
r.
i.
3
s. 20
j.
12
t.
Robespierre
Fraternity—The ideal of fraternity
must be maintained, but it must be
constrained by law and order.
e. Napoleon
Liberty—Liberty is a freedom for
people who follow the laws and
dictates of the government.
8
17
Equality—All people are created
equal, and the equality of talent is
a government strength.
208
From Advanced Placement European History, Book 1. Copyright © The Center for Learning (www.centerforlearning.org). Not for resale.
5. To conclude, have students complete part
D as a large-group activity. Review responses. (There is no single definition for
this concept from the French Revolution,
and its ultimate explanation depends on
the circumstances of the times.)
Fraternity—Fraternity is patriotism,
and patriotism is the basis of a
strong government.
2. fraternity
3. Robespierre and Napoleon
4. Have students complete part C of the
handout individually. Review responses.
Suggested Responses:
1. Count of Artois—None
2. Madame Roland—Tennis Court Oath,
Fall of the Bastille, Night of August 4,
Declaration of the Rights of Man, Civil
Constitution of the Clergy, Mirabeau’s
constitutional monarchy, Brunswick
Manifesto, abolition of the monarchy
3. Robespierre—“Marseillaise,” Reign of
Terror, national conscription (Decree of
Levée en Masse), metric system, tricolor,
Committee of Public Safety
4. Member of the Directory—White Terror,
Thermidorean Reaction
5. Napoleon—Consulate, Code Napoleon,
Concordat of 1801, Napoleon crowned
Emperor
209
From Advanced Placement European History, Book 1. Copyright © The Center for Learning (www.centerforlearning.org). Not for resale.
Advanced Placement European History, Book 1
Lesson 30
Handout 49 (page 1)
Name_______________________
Date________________________
Ideals of Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity
Part A.
Directions: Answer the following questions. Be prepared for class discussion.
1. Write your own definition of each of following terms.
a. Liberty
b. Equality
c. Fraternity
2. Research the Count of Artois (later King Charles X), Madame Roland, Robespierre, a member
of the Directory, and Napoleon. Note how each of these viewed government, social classes,
and justice and law.
Person
Government
Social Classes
Justice and Law
a. Count of Artois
b. Madame Roland
c. Robespierre
d. Member of
the Directory
e. Napoleon
© COPYRIGHT, The Center for Learning. Used with permission. Not for resale.
210
Advanced Placement European History, Book 1
Lesson 30
Handout 49 (page 2)
Name_______________________
Date________________________
3. Place the following items in the correct chronological order.
_______a. Declaration of the Rights of Man
_______l.
_______b. Brunswick Manifesto
_______m. Civil Constitution of the Clergy
_______c. National conscription
_______n. Fall of the Bastille
_______d. Concordat of 1801
_______o. Code Napoleon
_______e. White Terror
_______p. Thermidorean Reaction
_______f.
_______q. “Marseillaise”
Reign of Terror
Committee of Public Safety
_______g. Tennis Court Oath
_______r.
_______h. Mirabeau’s constitutional monarchy
_______s. Napoleon crowned emperor
_______i.
Night of August 4
_______t.
_______j.
Tricolor
Abolition of the monarchy
Consulate
_______k. Metric System
Part B.
Directions: Complete the chart and answer the questions.
1. Define liberty, equality, and fraternity according to the views of each of the following people.
Person
Liberty
Equality
a. Count of Artois
b. Madame Roland
c. Robespierre
d. Member of the
Directory
e. Napoleon
© COPYRIGHT, The Center for Learning. Used with permission. Not for resale.
211
Fraternity
Advanced Placement European History, Book 1
Lesson 30
Handout 49 (page 3)
Name_______________________
Date________________________
2. Which is most emphasized—liberty, equality, or fraternity?
3. Which person represents the period that was most constructive for the development of these
human rights?
4. With which of the above would your views on liberty, equality, and fraternity be most closely
related?
Part C.
Directions: Link the events from item 3 of part A with the appropriate person.
1. Count of Artois
2. Madame Roland
3. Robespierre
4. Member of the Directory
5. Napoleon
Part D.
Directions: Develop a thesis on the ideals of liberty, equality, and fraternity, based on the
events of the French Revolution.
© COPYRIGHT, The Center for Learning. Used with permission. Not for resale.
212
Download

Lesson 30 The French Revolution