Observations are facts derived from the environment by using the five senses. Ex: The book is yellowish.
In inferences are conclusions or predictions based on your observations. Ex: The rock is old.
Your senses can be extended (made more precise) by using instruments. Ex: The book is 22cm.
Classification is organizing observations in a meaningful way. Ex: The book is science fiction.
Mass- the amount of ___matter______ in an object.
Volume- the amount of ____ space_________ an object occupies.
The ___density_____ of any given substance will remain the same regardless of the size, shape, or mass of the sample.
As the pressure increases, the density of a substance will ___ increase__________.
As the temperature increases, the density ___decrease__________.
Water expands when it __freezes____________ causing density to ____decrease__________.
Most changes are ___cyclic________, which means that they are predictable (repeating pattern).
Dynamic Equilibrium means __changes_____ are occurring but overall they ___balance_______ out.
Most substances are densest as a ___ solid__________.
Water is densest at __ 4___ degrees Celsius, when it is a ___ liquid_________.
Objects more dense than water _____sink _______, less dense will ___ float __________.
Because the Earth bulges slightly at the equator and is slightly flattened at the poles it is called an ___ oblate _______
___ spheroid ___________.
The equatorial diameter is ___ greater __________ than the polar diameter.
A person would weigh slightly _ more___ at the poles because he/she is __closer ________ to the center of the Earth.
The best model of the Earth’s shape is a __ Perfect sphere (ping-pong ball) _________.
Evidence for a round earth: photos from space (best evidence), ships disappear slowly over the horizon, Earth’s shadow
on the moon is curved (lunar eclipse), Polaris = latitude, gravity measurements are difference.
The altitude of Polaris (North Star) above the horizon is the same as the observer’s __ latitude ___________.
Polaris is located above the Earth’s ___ axis _______ of ______ rotation_______.
You can only see Polaris in the ___ northern _______ hemisphere –always have to look __ north _____ to see Polaris.
As a persons latitude increases, the altitude of Polaris ___increases________.
25. If you’re at 90°N, then Polaris is _90◦__ above the horizon- If you are at 0° then Polaris is _0_° .
26. ___ Latitude ____ Lines run left to right (horizontal) but measures distances __north ______ and ___south_____ of
the equator.
27. ____ Longitude _________ Lines run up and down (vertically) but measure east and west of the Prime Meridian.
28. Approximate latitude of NY is _ 41 ___ to 45°N, 72 to __ 79 __°W.
29. Longitude is based on earth’s rotation of 15°/hr and the sun’s apparent motion.
30. If you travel west time becomes less, if you travel east, time will increase!
31. The closer the isolines (contour, isobar, isotherm) the ____greater (steeper) __________ the slope (gradient).
32. Contour lines always bend at a stream forming a “V” that points in the opposite direction of flow.
33. Contour Interval – the elevation increase between two contour lines, Ocean/ sea level = 0.
34. Streams always flow from ___ high ______to___ low______ elevation.
Hydrosphere = water (oceans) Lithosphere = Crust (continental/oceanic) Atmosphere = Layers of gasses.
Apparent diameter of objects (sun, moon) gets larger when _____ closer _______ to earth.
The red shift (Doppler Effect) and cosmic background radiation is evidence for the Big Bang Theory
Light from distant galaxies show a shift to the ___ red_______ end of the visible spectrum, which is evidence that the
universe is ____ expanding ___________.
Our Solar System
Our sun is a medium size (Main Sequence) star in the galaxy called the _ Milky Way ________.
Most stars spend a majority of their life as an average ___ main sequence___ star. P. 15
Our sun will eventually swell up to be a red giant then shrink down into a white dwarf.
Star get their energy from __ nuclear fusion_(4 hydrogen into 1 helium)
The theory of the formation of the universe is called the __ Big Bang _____ theory.
The inner Terrestrial (rocky) planets are composed of ____ solid rock____and have ____ high ______ average density.
The outer Jovian (gaseous) planets are composed of ___ gas_______ and have ____ low _____ average density.
Stars like the Sun appear to move at __ 15° ____ per hour because the earth ____ rotates _____ 15 degrees per hour.
The only star that does not appear to move is _____ Polaris _______ because it is located directly above the Earth’s _
axis ______of____ rotation _______.
48. The earth _____ rotates _______ from west to east (24 hours) at a rate of _ 15° __ degrees per hour.“Right Hand Rule”
49. The earth ______ revolves ______ around the sun (365 1/4) days.)
50. All celestial objects appear to move from ___ east _____ to ___ west __.
51. The moon has phases because it ____ revolves___ around the __earth ___.
52. Eclipses only occur at the ____ new ______ and full moon phases.
53. A lunar eclipse is when the ____ full moon _____ is blocked out.
54. A solar eclipse is when the ____ sunlight______ is blocked out.
55. Earth’s seasons are caused by 1. ____ Earth’s revolution around sun____
2.______ Tilt ___ of the Earth’s Axis
3._______ Parallelism ____________ of the Earth’s Axis
56. Evidence of Earth’s revolution around the Sun is the changing ____ seasons___ and _____ constellations _______
throughout the year,
57. Summer solstice is on ____ June 21______.
 The ___ northern ________ hemisphere is tilted toward the Sun.
 The direct (perpendicular) rays of the sun hit the Tropic of ___ Cancer______.
 Sun rise is __ north _____ of east, and sunset is ___ north _____ of the west.
58. Winter solstice is on __ December 21 ______.
 The _ southern ______ hemisphere is tilted towards the sun.
 The direct (perpendicular) rays of the sun hit the Tropic of ___Capricorn___.
 Sun rise is ___ south ____ of east, and sunset is ___ south _____ of west.
59. Equinoxes are ___ March 21 _____ and __ September 23 ______.
 The direct (perpendicular) rays hit the ______ equator_________.
 The sun rise_____ due east ____ and sets ___ due west_ on the equinoxes.
60. Duration of insulation = ___ 12 _____hours on the equinox.
61. The three important locations that receive the direct/perpendicular rays of the sun are:
_____ Tropic of Cancer 23.5 N________,____ Equator 0° __,______ Tropic of Capricorn 23.5 S° ____
62. Greatest angle of insolation/perpendicular/vertical rays of the Sun (overhead sun) can only occur
between __ 23.5° _____°N & ___ 23.5° ____°S.
63. The maximum duration of insolation is __ 24 ____ hrs.
64. The greatest duration of insolation can only occur at __ 90 ___°N or ___ 90 __°S
65. The largest angle of insolation is __ 90 ____ degrees.
66. As the sun’s angle of insolation increases, the sun’s intensity ____ increases ______.
67. The equator always has __ 12 ____ hours of daylight.
The higher the altitude of the sun, the ______ shorter________ the shadow.
Shadows are the longest at ___sunrise/sunset _____ (time of day). And the shortest at ___ noon _______.
Noon shadows are the shortest in NY on ____ June 21 ____(date). Longest on __ December 21 _____(date)
In NY, an observer must always look ___ south_____ to see the sun at noon.
The sun is ____ never _____ at an observer’s zenith (90 degrees) in NY.
Winds, ocean currents and anything else moving across Earth are deflected (curve) because of the ___ Coriolis Effect.
Foucault’s pendulum and Coriolis effect is evidence that the Earth ____Rotates.
Changing Seasons and Constellations is evidence that the Earth _____Revolves.
The Earth is closer to the sun during the ____ winter ______ season.
Perihelion – earth is ___ closest _______to the sun.
Aphelion – earth is ____ farthest away ______ to the sun.
The closer a planet is to the sun, the ______ faster____ its velocity as its orbits.
The closer a planet is to the sun, the ______ stronger _______ the gravitational attraction.
Gravity is greatest when the mass of objects are _____ large ____ and the distance between them is ____close______.
Tides are caused by the _____ moon’s _____ gravitational attraction.
There are ____ 2 ____ high tides, and ___ 2 ______ low tides per day (12.5 hours apart)- a cyclic pattern.
Our solar system is located ¾ the way down one of the spiral arms of our galaxy- the ____ Milky Way ____.
A _____ galaxy ______ is a cluster of 100-200 billion stars.
The following is in _____ decreasing _____ size and age order: Universe, Galaxy, Solar system, Earth.
_____ Geocentric _______ model is earth centered. Everything revolves around the earth.
______ Heliocentric ______________ model is sun centered. Planets revolve around the sun.
All planets orbit in ______ elliptical__________ (shaped) orbits with the _____ sun ______ at one foci.
The farther from the Sun the _____ slower_______ the orbital path.
As the distance between foci increases, the eccentricity ______ increases (closer to 1)_____.
The more ___ circular _____ the orbit the less eccentric/elliptical it is.
The closer the eccentricity is to 0 the more ____ circular _______, the closer it is to 1 the more ___ eccentric________
the orbit is.
The earth’s orbit is extremely round, almost perfect, but it is slightly elliptical, see ESRT pg 15.
The color _____ black _____ absorbs, while _____ white ____ reflects energy.
Smooth/shiny surfaces _______ reflect_ more radiation, and rough dull surfaces _____ absorb_____more radiation.
_______ Conduction _______ transfers energy by direct contact (molecules collide).
Convection- heat transfers due to ____ density_____ differences. (gases and liquids.)
Hot air and liquids__ expand __ because they are _ less __ dense and __ rise____.
When air is heated it becomes ______ less_____ dense and ______ rises _______.
Radiation – transfer of energy in the form of electromagnetic ___ waves __________.
Electromagnetic energy is categorized based on ____ wavelength___. (pg 14 ESRT)
103. The portion of the sun’s electromagnetic energy that reaches the Earth’s surface with the maximum intensity is
______ visible light ______.
104. The ozone is found in the ____ stratosphere ____ layer of the atmosphere and absorbs harmful rays known as __
ultra violet ________.
105. When electromagnetic waves are bent due to density differences it’s called _______ refraction _____.
106. As the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere increases, the amount of the insolation reaching the earth
________decreases _____.
Earth received mainly short wave ____ visible____ during the day and later reradiates this energy back
space as _____ infrared energy _________waves (heat energy).
108. Infrared heat energy is absorbed by two gases ____Carbon dioxide__ and ____ water vapor__ (green house gasses).
109. As the amount of Carbon dioxide increase, the temperature of the earth _______ increases_______.
110. Objects radiate the most amount of energy when their temperatures are ______ high _________.
111. Energy moves from the source to sink, or from ___ high _________ to ____ low _________.
112. Most of the energy that drives surface process come from the ___ sun _________.
113. ____ Kinetic ___________ energy is energy of motion.
114. _____ Potential__________ energy is stored energy or “energy of position”.
115. There is NO ____ temperature_____ change during a phase change.
116. Use the ESRT to see which process release energy and which processes gain energy (front page.)
117. ____Infrared ______________ is heat energy that is re-radiated by the earth.
118. Land heats up __ quicker _______ than liquid water because it has a __ lower ________ specific heat.
119. The higher the specific heat the ____ slower __________ it takes to heat up and cool down.
120. Good absorbers of radiation are also good _____ radiators __________________.
121. The hottest time of the year is ___ July __________(approx date), which is after the angle of insolation (6/21)
122. Hottest part of the day is ____ 2-3 o’clock_____(approx time) which is after the greatest angle of insolation (noon).
123. As altitude increases, air pressure _____ decreases _________.
124. Air Pressure or Barometric Pressure is caused by weight of the air (Barometer measures Air Pressure.)
125. As altitude increases, the amount of water vapor ___ decreases ____________.
126. The greatest amount of water vapor is found in the ___ troposphere______________ (layer of atmosphere.)
127. The greatest atmospheric pressure occurs in the ___ troposphere _____________ (layer of the atmosphere.)
128. As temperature increases, density of air ____decreases____________.
129. As temperature increases, air pressure ______ decreases__________________.
130. As moisture content increases (humidity), air pressure ___ decreases______________.
131. AS temperature increases, the moisture holding capacity of the air ___ increases _____________.
132. High pressure systems are associated with __ fair _________ weather conditions.
133. Low pressure systems are associated with __ rainy ________ weather conditions.
134. In Low pressure systems winds blow ___ inward__ and __ counterclockwise ________ (L.I.C.C.)
135. In high pressure systems winds blow ___ outward ________ and _____ clockwise _______ (H.O.C.)
136. At the center of a low pressure center, air __ rises ________ and ___ converges ________ (Low-CO)
137. At the center of a high pressure center air ___ sinks _________ and ___ diverges _________ (High-DI)
138. The highest pressure is ___ cool____ and ___ dry _______. Air pressure is lowest when it is ___ warm
___ and
________ wet____.
139. Winds blow due to difference in ________ air pressure________.
140. The more closely spaced the isobars the _____ faster _________ the wind speed.
141. Wind blows from regions of _____ high ______ to _____ low _________ pressure.
142. Winds are named for the direction they are ___________ coming FROM____________.
143. Weather patterns (in the U.S.) move from _______ west _____ to _________ east ______, because we are located in
the ______ prevailing westerlies _____ planetary wind belt.
144. Cold Front (
Warm Front
145. Fronts are associated with _____ low ______ pressure. Clouds and precipitation.
146. A front is a boundary between 2 air masses.
147. When warm air rises, it _______expands___, _______cools____ and _________ condenses _____. (R.E.C.C.)
148. In order for clouds to form, the air needs to be _____ saturated____ and ___ condensation nuclei _____ must be
149. The closer the air temperature is to the dew point the _______ higher ______ the relative humidity and the greater the
chance for __________precipitation ______.
150. Air mass characteristics (temp. moisture) are determined by the __________ source region ________.
151. The mT air mass that affect NY’s weather is _______ moist _______ and _______ warm_____ and forms over the
________ Gulf of Mexico_____.
152. cP air masses are _______ dry _______ and _____ cold ____ and form over _____ Central Canada_________.
153. Relative humidity – a percentage of the amount of moisture in the air to the maximum amount it can hold.
154. Saturation – When the air is holding the _________ maximum _____ amount of water it can hold.
155. Dew Point temperature – Temperature at which ______ condensation_______ occurs (air is saturated.)
156. When the air temperature equals the dew point temperature relative humidity is _____ mass ________.
157. When the air temperature approaches the dew point temperature relative humidity is ____ 100%______.
158. Precipitation ______ decreases_____ pollution and ________ increases ___ atmospheric transparency.
159. Dry, hot and windy conditions _____ increase_______ the rate of evaporation.
160. Tornadoes – short lived (a minute or less) small in size- get in the basement!
161. Hurricanes – Low Pressure systems- last days, very large, high winds, - evacuate – stock pile food/ water, batteries,
162. Hurricanes get their energy from warm ocean water mT air mass, die over land, know hurricane track.
163. The rate of evaporation increases when surface area _______ increases ___________.
164. As particle size increases, permeability __________ increases ________.
165. Porosity (percentage of empty pore spaces) does not depend on _______ particle size ________.
166. ____________ Smallest______ particles retain the most water after infiltration.
167. As the slope of the land increases, runoff _______ increases________.
168. Runoff ___________ increases _______ when a surface is impermeable, saturated, steeply sloped.
169. In order for infiltration to occur the ground needs to be ________ unsaturated ____ and _______ permeable ______.
170. If the rate of precipitation is greater than the rate of infiltration, _______ runoff ______ will occur.
171. Capillarity (movement of water upward against gravity) increases when particle size __________ decreases____.
172. Transpiration- process by which living plants release water vapor to atmosphere.
173. The amount of Ep (potential evapotranspiration) depends on _____ temperature _________.
174. Large bodies of water _______ moderates________ temperatures.
175. During the day there is a _______ sea ______ breeze. At night a ________ land ____ breeze develops.
176. Continental climates = ____ large ___ temperature range. Cooler____ winters______ and warmer __ summers___.
177. Marine climates = _____ small ____ temperature range. Cooler ______summers and warmer ____ winters____.
178. The windward side of a mountain is ____ cool ______ and ____ wet ___. The leeward side is
____ warm _____ and ______ dry _____. (Label the diagram, what happens to the air as it rises and sinks on either
Air rises, expands,
Air sinks, compresses, and warms
side of the mountain?)
179. Ocean currents are caused by _____ wind______., and are deflected due to the ___Coriolis Effect____
180. As latitude increases, temperature _______ decreases __________.
181. As elevation increases, temperature ______ decreases ____________.
182. _______________ Gravity___________ is the force behind all erosion.
183. _______________Running Water__________ is the primary agent of erosion.
184. Stream velocity depends on ________ gradient _______ and ______ volume (discharge) ___________.
185. The size of the particle transported depends on the stream’s _____ velocity _____________.
186. Heavy-dense-round particles settle _________ first _______ in water.
187. Graded bedding (vertical sorting) _____ large______ sediments are on the bottom.
188. Glacial sediments are _________ unsorted ______, scratched and form ________ “U” _________ shaped valleys.
189. Stream deposits are ______ sorted _______, round, and form _____ “V”________ shaped valleys.
190. Rocks are classified based on _______ origin (how they are formed) _____________.
191. Igneous rocks form from the ____ solidification ___________ (crystallization) of molten material (lava or magma.)
192. Igneous exhibit intergrown/interlocking mineral crystals.
193. Vesicular texture – gas pockets (porous). An example would be the rock __________Pumice, Scoria, etc_________.
194. If an igneous rock cools extremely fast, the rock will exhibit a _______ glassy _____ texture.
195. When an igneous rock cools fast, _____________ small_____________ crystals form.
196. When an igneous rock cools slowly, ___________ large_______________ crystals form.
197. Intrusive = ______ below _______ ground.
198. Extrusive = ______ above _______ ground.
199. Mafic rocks are ____dark colored_________ with a ______ high_______ density.
200. Felsic rocks are _______ light colored ______ with a _______ low ______ density.
201. Clastic sedimentary rocks are formed by the _______ compaction ____ and ______ cementation____ of sediments.
202. Bioclastic – form from the compaction and cementation of _____ organic matter______.
203. Crystalline sedimentary rocks form from the ______ evaporation____ of water and _______ precipitation ______ of
dissolved mineral from a solution.
204. Only rock type to contain fossils - ______ sedimentary_______.
205. Metamorphic rocks from pre-existing rocks that have been altered due ___ heat ____ and/or___ pressure_________.
206. _____ Metamorphic ________ rocks may be foliated (banding.)
207. Key words for Metamorphic rocks are ; foliation, re-crystallize, distorted structure.
208. Mineral properties such as cleavage and hardness depend on the ______ internal arrangement____ of the molecules.
209. The most common mineral is _____ quartz________ (composed of silicon and oxygen.)
210. Cleavage- the tendency for a mineral to break along ________ smooth__,_________ flat ____ surfaces.
211. Hardness – the ______ resistance _______ to being ________ scratched _____.
212. Weathering- Break down of rocks at the earth’s surface into _________ sediments ____.
213. Sediments – broke down pieces of rock.
214. Soil- mixture of weathered rock (sediments) and organic remains that cover bedrock.
215. Chemical weathering dominates in _____ warm ________ and________ wet _____ climates.
216. Physical weathering dominates in _____ cold ____ and ____ wet __________ climates. (Good For Frost Wedging)
217. As the particle size decreases, the rate of weathering will _______ increases_________.
218. When particles are broken into smaller pieces, the surface area _____ increases _________.
219. Sediments are classified based on their _________ particle size__. (i.e. .02cm particles are sand)
220. Erosion- _____movement________ of sediments
221. ___________ Gravity _____ is the ultimate force behind erosion.
222. _________ Running Water _______ is the primary agent of erosion.
223. Dissolved mineral are carried in _____ solution_________.
224. Silt/Clay colloids are carried by _____ suspension _________.
225. Sand/ Pebbles slide and bounce along the bottom.
226. As the velocity increases, the size of the sediments a stream can transport _______ increases ________.
227. As the slope/gradient of a stream increases, the size of the sediments a stream can transport _____ increases_______.
228. As the discharge (an amount of water in a stream) increases, velocity will _______ increase ________.
229. The velocity of a stream is greatest on the _______ outside___ of a meander (bend).
230. Erosion occurs on the _____ outside________ of a meander where velocity is ____ fast __________.
231. Deposition occurs on the _____ inside _______ of a meander where velocity is ______ slow ________.
232. _____ Large______, _______ dense_______, _________ Round _____, particles are the first to settle out of water as
the water slows down. (Sorting Sediments)
233. Sediments transported by water are _____ round_______ and _____ smooth_______ due to abrasion.
234. Streams erode a _ “V” ____ shaped valley.
235. Sediments deposited by glaciers are _______ unsorted _______, (all mixed up in size and shape.)
236. Glaciers erode a __ “U” __ shaped valley.
237. After a glacier has moved through an area the bedrock is _______ smooth___ and _______ polished____ with
parallel glacial striations (scratches).
238. Wind deposits consist of fine grained well sorted particles (sand) particles exhibit a pitted/frosted appearance and cross
bedded layers.
239. Residual soil- developed from the bedrock below it- _____ same _________ mineral composition as bedrock below.
240. Transported soil- transported from another location- _____ different______ mineral composition than bedrock below.
241. ______ Longshore _______ drift moves sand along the beach in the direction of the ocean current.
242. Folds, faults, _______ tilts_______ provide evidence that the earth’s crust has moved.
243. Earthquake is a sudden movement along a fault, usually happens at ______ plate boundaries_____.
244. ______ Tsunamis________ (tidal wave) caused by underwater earthquake.
245. Fossils of marine life found at high elevation are evidence of _______ uplift_______.
246. Evidence of continental drift (pangea) – The puzzle like appearance of the continents (South America/Africa) South
America and Africa have same: fossils, rock layers. Climactic evidence (i.e. glacier in Africa?)
247. Mid-Ocean ridges (spreading center) are areas where ____________ new crust__ ______________ is being created
as tectonic plates move apart.
248. ______ Divergent ________ plate boundary – Two plates move apart.
249. ______ Convergent ________ - two plates move toward one another.
250. Proof of sea floor spreading -1- the age of the ocean floor is ______ younger____ at the mid ocean ridges and gets
_____ older____ as you move away in either direction. 2. There is also a matching pattern of earth’s _____ magnetic__
polarity on either side of the ridge.
251. Inferences about Earth’s interior come from the study of ________ seismic waves _________.
252. Earthquakes and volcanoes happen in the same spot, near ________ plate boundaries________.
253. ______ Hot Spots________ are not associated with plate boundaries –magma burns through plate = a series of islands
254. Continental crust is ______ older_______ with a density of ______ 2.7 g/cm3 ______ and is composed of
____granite __________.
255. Oceanic crust is ________ younger___, with a density of ___3.0 g/cm3 _____ and is composed of ___basalt____.
256. When a continental plate collides with an oceanic plate the ______ oceanic________ plate subducts because it
______more________ dense.
______ Transform________ Boundary – Plates slide past each other (San Andres Fault).
Subduction zones/Trenches are where _________ oceanic crust_____________ is destroyed. (Recycled).
_____ Convection Currents_ in the asthenosphere (mantle) cause the plates to move.
P- Waves travel _____ faster _________ than S- waves.
P waves travel through ___ solids_______ & ______ liquids _____, but S- waves through _____ solids ____ only.
We can infer that the outer core is _____ liquid_________ because __ S__ waves cannot penetrate it.
One seismic station can determine the _____ distance _________ to the epicenter.
As the distance from the epicenter increases, the time lag between the P sand the S wave _______ increases_______.
You need ______ 3 ________ seismic stations to plot an epicenter. (Where three circles meet).
Undisturbed strata – bottom layer is _____ oldest_________, top layer is ______ youngest ________.
Intrusions are faults are ___ younger___________ than the rock they effect.
An __unconformity ___________ is a buried erosional surface. Means missing time/gap in rock record.
An arid landscape has _____ steep _________ slopes with _____ high________ angles.
A humid landscape has ____ gentle __________ slopes with ____ low _________ angles.
A landscape is determines by the climate, bedrock, and geologic structures.
Stream Drainage patterns – ___ Radial ___________ pattern for MTs – dendritic pattern for _____ downhill _____,
Plateaus have a rectangular or ____ trelis__________ pattern.
273. Uranium – 238 dates ___ old ___________ rocks.
274. Carbon – 14 dates ___ recent ___________, once living objects.
275. The half-life of a radioactive element _____ cannot _________ be changed.
276. The half-life of an element is the amount of time it takes for __ half_ of the parent atoms to decay into daughter atoms.
277. Half Life never changes NO Matter What! Radioactive elements decay forever!
278. To be a useful index fossil, as species must have lived for a __ Narrow______ period of time over a
___ Widespread __________ geographic area.
279. Layers of volcanic ash are good time markers because they are deposited ____ quickly __________ over a
Widespread __________ area.
280. In NY, fossils of corals reveal VY was once under a warm shallow sea (NY was near the equator.)
281. Geologic time is divided into units based on ______ fossil ________ evidence.
282. In general, life has evolved from the ____ simple _________ to the _____ more complex _________.
Relax – You’ve already completed 15% of the exam.
Be sure to answer every question. At the end, if you have no idea, take a guess. Don’t leave any questions blank.
Don’t panic. Take your time. You have three hours to do the exam.
Read introductory paragraphs and study diagrams before looking at questions. Underline key words.
Use a straight-edge to read graphics, to mark points on a graph and the measure distances.
Do all math calculations twice (It’s very easy to hit the wrong button on the calculator.)
Read all choices before deciding on an answer, sometimes a question has a good and better answer. Always choose the
better answer.
If you are not sure of an answer, try to eliminate choices that you think are clearly wrong and narrow down your choices.
Then make your most careful guess.
Remember the question doesn’t always say, “according to the ESRT . . . etc”. You have to ask yourself, “Is this
something I am expected to know or do I have to look it up?”
Check your test a second time, but only change an answer if you made an obvious mistake. Your first choice is usually
Look up formulas, even if you think you know them. Substitute information from the question into the formula. There
are formulas on the front page of the ESRT.
Skip over hard questions that are stumping you. MAKE SURE that you go back to them later. Something else in the test
may give you a clue to the harder problems.
A good night sleep is as important as the above 282 items. Have a healthy meal for dinner the night before.
Relax, you’ve seen all this stuff before (although it may be asked slightly different.)