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SAN DIEGO MESA COLLEGE
PHIL 102B
CRN 82600
CRN 86634
CRN 85705
FALL 2014
INSTRUCTOR: PROF. NINA ROSENSTAND
INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY: VALUES
STUDY GUIDE, FINAL EXAM
Prof. Rosenstand’s office: SB311P. No mailbox.
Office hours during the finals: MTWTh 11:1512:30 and by appointment.
Messages to Prof. Rosenstand: (619) 388-2407
E-mail: [email protected]
Website: http://classroom.sdmesa.edu/nrosenst
READINGS:
TMTS Ch.6, “Kant’s Deontology” pp.289-296
FINAL EXAMINATIONS:
TMTS Ch.8, "Virtue Ethics" (Socrates and
MW class 12:45: Wednesday Dec.10, Final.
Plato) pp.385-386, 390-405.
MW class 3:55: Wednesday Dec.10, Final.
TMTS Ch.9, "Aristotle's Virtue Theory" pp.431TTh class: Thursday Dec.11, 12:45: Final.
452, + Narrative: “Icarus”
MW classes: Monday Dec.15: Final meetings,
Ch.10, “Contemporary Perspectives” pp.47012:45 and 3:55
483
TTh class: Final meeting Tuesday Dec.16,
12:45.
During final meetings finals will be returned.
No-shows lose 2 points off their final exam.
STAY INFORMED ABOUT POSSIBLE LAST MINUTE CHANGES TO THE READINGS!
FORMAT OF THE FINAL:
USE A SCANTRON FORM # 882; PLEASE USE PENCIL #2. MAKE SURE YOUR SCANTRON ANSWERS ARE
CLEAR AND UNAMBIGUOUS; OTHERWISE THE SCANTRON MACHINE CAN'T READ THEM. READ THE
QUESTIONS CAREFULLY. YOU MAY WRITE ON THE TEST. TOTAL POSSIBLE POINTS: 50.
PLAGIARISM POLICY: USING UNAUTHORIZED OPEN BOOKS, ELECTRONIC DEVICES OR NOTES DURING THE
TEST, OR CONSULTING WITH OTHER STUDENTS, WILL RESULT IN AN F ON THE TEST.
There will be 12 True/False questions; each correct answer is worth 2 points.
There will be 13 Multiple Choice questions; each correct answer is worth 2 points.
KEY CONCEPTS P.2
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Key Concepts
Ch.6
Recap (will not be on test):
Kant’s categorical imperative: Absolute
moral command
Structure of cat.imp.: State your maxim,
universalize it, ask if it is rational.
5 critiques of the cat.imp.: 1) Mill: Kant is referring
to consequences; 2) cat.imp. doesn’t solve conflict
between duties; 3) the loophole, making the maxim
too specific; 4) What is rationality? Depends on goal;
5) Cat.imp. allows for no exceptions (example: the
killer at the door)
Intrinsic value vs. instrumental value
Kant: rational beings should be treated as “ends-inthemselves” with intrinsic value
“ends in themselves”: respect for rational beings
including yourself
“Merely a means to an end” = instrumental value
only (taking advantage of others)
“means to an end” is not the same as “merely a means
to an end” (use vs. abuse, disrespect)
Rational persons vs. non-rational things/animals
Problems: what about humans who are not rational,
and animals
Kant regarded animals as things
Kant’s last book: invented hybrid concept in-between
“person” and “thing,” for humans. Not for animals.
But Kant was against animal experiments.
Kingdom of Ends: Kant’s utopia, using cat. imp. and
treating people with respect
Ch.8
ethics of conduct (what to do?) vs. virtue ethics (how
to be?)
Christianity (God gets credit for good character)
eliminated ancient virtue ethics (you take credit for
creating your own good character)
virtue (arete: excellence)
Hypatia: murdered woman philosopher
The charges against Socrates: offending gods,
corrupting youth
Socrates’ final words: owing a rooster to Asclepius
Socratic method (dialectic method)
opinion (doxa) vs. knowledge (episteme)
Socrates: People do morally wrong acts out of
ignorance
Socrates’ 3 parts of the psyche: reason, willpower,
appetites (desires)
3 corresponding virtues: wisdom, courage,
temperance
Freud’s three parts of the psyche, inspired by Plato’s
Republic: id, ego, superego
Plato opens up the first adult school, the Academy
Plato’s three sections of the ideal state: philosopherkings, police & military, and the general population
Women’s place in the ideal state determined by
talent, not gender. So: women in gov’t, and military.
Plato’s influence on Christianity through St.
Augustine: The life of the soul is more important than
the life of the body [from your notes]
Primary Reading: The Republic: the virtue of reason
corresponds to wisdom, the “spirited part”
(willpower) corresponds to courage, and controlled
appetites correspond to temperance. The combined
virtue is justice.
Ch.9
Aristotle had ambitions to take over Plato’s school,
but never succeeded. He opened up his own school,
the Lyceum.
Aristotle's theory of four causes: material, efficient,
formal, final
teleology: theory of purpose
teleological explanation vs. causal explanation
(“giraffes”)
the Golden Mean= relative mean between extremes
of excess and deficiency
examples of virtues (courage, pride, anger, etc.)
happiness (eudaimonia) is the reward of virtue
Aristotle had enormous influence on Western and
Middle Eastern thinking.
Problems with ancient virtue ethics: undemocratic;
can’t solve difference of opinion.
Narrative: “The Flight of Icarus”: the Golden Mean:
not too high, not too low
Ch.10
The late 20th century revival of virtue ethics
Negative role models teach good lessons
Kant did not approve of role models
The political aspect of conduct vs. character
Mayo: becoming virtuous by having role models;
works better than ethics of conduct
3 problems with Mayo’s theory: (1) What if people
can’t agree on role models? (2) What if one’s role
model is imperfect? (3) Can we be virtuous by just
emulating role models?
Foot: Reintroduced virtue ethics. Virtue is a matter of
good intentions, not just a good disposition
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final study guide - San Diego Mesa College