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Born in June 15, 1902. A Danish mother and
German father.
Raised as a Jew, married a Christian and
converted to Christianity.
At 18, he graduated from a classical
gymnasium. He studied Latin, Greek, German
Literature and Ancient History.
In 1927, got training from Anna Freud on
psychoanalysis.
Married to Joan in 1929, who became her
research partner.
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In 1933, he became the full member of
Vienna Psychoanalytical Society.
Joined Yale Medical School in 1936. Studied
psychological symptoms, including the lack
of self-image or identity, that were related to
a sense of loss of cultural tradition.
Continued Research on Development stages
of Life, since 1940. He studied the lives of
Martin Luther and Mahatma Gandhi of India.
Passed away in 1997.
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Named by Erikson, Epigenesis (epi means
upon and genesis means emergence) was the
first psychological theory to detail the
human life cycle, from infancy to adulthood
and old age; Epigenesis suggests that each
element develops on top of other parts.
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Age: 0 to 1 year old
Psychosocial Crisis: Trust vs. Mistrust
Virtue: Hope
Corresponds to Freud's oral stage centers
around the infant's basic needs being met by
the parents.
Primary Caregivers give trust or mistrust
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Age: Toddlers, 2 to 3 years
Main Question: "Can I do things myself or
must I always rely on others?"
Virtue: Will
As the child gains control over eliminative
functions and motor abilities, they begin to
explore their surroundings.
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Age : Preschool, 4 to 6 years
Main Question: "Am I good or am I bad?"
Virtue: Purpose
Related Elements in Society: ideal
prototypes/roles
The child is learning to master the world
around him or her.
Guilt is a new emotion and is confusing to the
child.
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Age : Childhood, 7 to 12 years.
Main Question: "Am I successful or
worthless?"
Virtue: Competence
Related Elements in Society: division of labor
Erikson viewed the elementary school years
as critical for the development of selfconfidence.
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Age : Adolescents, 13 to 19 years.
Main Question: "Who am I and where am I
going?"
Ego quality: Fidelity
Related Elements in Society: Ideology
Child develops a sense of sexual identity.
Sometimes the roles becomes confusing.
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Age : Young Adults, 20 to 34 years.
Main Question: "Am I loved and wanted?" or
"Shall I share my life with someone or live
alone?"
Ego quality: Love
Related Elements in Society: patterns of
cooperation (often marriage)
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Age : Middle Adulthood, 35 to 65 years.
Main Question: "Will I produce something of
real value?"
Virtue: Care
Related Elements in Society: parenting,
educating, or other productive social
involvement
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Age : Seniors, 65 years onwards.
Main Question: "Have I lived a full life?"
Virtue: Wisdom