Name Weather and Erosion Vocabulary Word Definition landform A physical feature on earth’s surface topographical map A map that shows the elevation of an area of Earth’s surface using contour lines relief map A map that uses shadowing or raised, 3-dimentional representation to show elevations continental shelf The ocean floor along the coast of a continent mid-ocean ridge Underwater mountain ranges abyssal plain Wide, flat area of the ocean floor sea mount Underwater mountain that rises from the ocean floor but stops before it reaches the surface of the ocean crust The rocky layer of the Earth’s surface. It includes the continents and ocean basins mantle A nearly melted layer of hot rock below the Earth’s crust Picture/Examples outer/inner core The Earth’s core is divided into inner and outer core. The inner core is made of solid metals and the outer core is made of liquid metals. continental drift Theory of the Earth’s continents being joined together as one big whole, then as time passed, some force pulled the continents apart to where they are today. plate tectonics A theory that explains how forces deep within the Earth can cause ocean floors to spread and continents to move. fault A deep crack in the Earth’s crust volcano An opening in the Earth’s crust through which lava may flow compression Squeezing or pushing together of the crust. When force upward, producing folded mountains. shear A force that twists, tears, or pushes one part of the crust past another. crater A cup-shaped depression formed around a vent of a volcano caldera a magma chamber that is empty and collapsed beneath a volcano and creates a hole shield volcano A type of volcano that is built by thinner, fluid lava that spreads over a large area. These mountains have a broad base and gently sloping sides. cinder-cone volcano Type of volcano that is built by thick lava that is thrown high up into the air and falls in chunks or cinders. These mountains have a cone shape with a narrow base and steep sides. composite volcano A type of volcano that is built by layers of ash and cinders sandwiched between layers of hardened lava. hot spot A stationary location in the Earth’s mantle where magma melts through a tectonic plate island chain a formation of islands aligned above a volcanic hot spot island arc A string of volcanic islands made from melted rock rising up from beneath the ocean floor(An area where the ocean-floor plate is pushed under another ocean-floor plate) magma/lava Magma- hot, melted rock below the Earth’s surface. Lavahot, melted rock that reaches Earth’s surface epicenter The point on Earth’s surface directly above the focus of an earthquake earthquake A sudden shaking of the Earth’s crust tsunami A huge wave caused by an earthquake under the ocean. Japanese word that means “wave in port.” seismometer an instrument that detects and measures waves produced by an earthquake weathering The process through which rocks or other materials are broken down into smaller pieces. physical weathering Weathering caused by temperature changes, pushing, pulling or rubbing. (trees growing in cracks and further breaking the rock or water freezing in cracks and pushing the rock out.) chemical weathering Weathering that occurs when chemicals break down rocks. (Acid rain wearing away parts of a garden statue) deposition The process of dropping off pieces of eroded rock. delta The triangular-shaped deposit of soil particles that forms where a river enters a larger body of water. erosion The process of carrying away soil or pieces of rock. sediment eroded materials or particles that can be moved or deposited in other another place glacier A large sheet of ice and snow that moves slowly over land. floodplain Land near a river that is likely to be under water during a flood. levee Walls built along the sides of a river. It raises the banks of a river so more water can flow during a flood. barrier islands A string of off-shore islands that shield the mainland from the waves and high winds of ocean storms. beach reclamation a process where sand is brought from another place to rebuild a badly damaged island.