Running head: EFFECT OF EXTRACURRICULAR ACTIVITIES Effect of Extracurricular Activities on Student Performance David Kubicsek University of St. Thomas Instructor: Dr. Elizabeth Bieler Fall 2015 1 EFFECT OF EXTRACURRICULAR ACTIVITIES 2 Effect of Extracurricular Activities on Student Performance One of the facets of the education system is the extracurricular activities at the educational institution. Extracurricular activities are activities such as sports, band, choir, orchestra and fine arts. The purpose or impact that athletics has on education have been debated. The concerned issue is, if there is a positive or negative effect of the extracurricular activity or if the extracurricular department of the school district should be removed or reduced to save costs. Unfortunately, extracurricular activities face the possible repercussions of budget cuts. Students who participate in extracurricular activities could possibly succeed in school and after high school just as much, if not more, than students that do not participate. The experience that students gain from participating in athletics per say will have an impact on their life when they are adults. Extracurricular activities are divided up into four categories: Academic extracurricular, School related services, Athletics and related programs and Interscholastic athletics. Academic extracurricular activities which include programs that are designed for students who wish to pursue individual/group interests and their purpose is to enrich their regular classroom experiences and personal lives. School related services which include civic and social-oriented school-related activities organized primarily to provide pupils with the opportunity to participate in experiences that relate to governmental bodies, citizen involvement, and school service. Athletics and related programs which include activities offered to students on a voluntary basis that provide opportunities for developing physical and mental fitness in competitive situations. Interscholastic athletics which include school-sponsored activities, under the supervision of the local school district staff, which provide opportunities for students to pursue various aspects of physical education and normally involve competition between schools. EFFECT OF EXTRACURRICULAR ACTIVITIES 3 Extracurricular activities are designed to supplement school curriculum and provide additional opportunities for our students to develop skills, character, and leadership. Furthermore, it is found that gifted students appear to spend their time out of school participating in constructive activities and increase their chances of becoming more gifted as they participate in more extra-curricular activities (Holloway, 2000). Involvement in extracurricular activities may have a positive effect to at risk students. Engagement in school extracurricular activities is linked to decreasing rates of student dropouts (Holloway, 2000). Extracurricular activities can be an outlet or option for adolescents than vices or negative influences. Extracurricular participation provides students an opportunity to create a positive and voluntary connection to their school (Holloway, 2000). Participation in these activities make student represent their school and district in numerous contests, events and competitions. Conversely, other strategies typically used to address the needs of at-risk students, such as school dropout prevention programs and remedial education, are not as influential on students due to their rhetoric (Holloway, 2000). There have been academic studies to determine the relationship between extracurricular activities and academic performance. Total extracurricular activity participation (TEAP), or participation in extracurricular activities in general, is associated with an improved grades, less absences, and a desire to further their education after high school (Fujita, 2006). If a student wants to participate in extracurricular activities, they need to maintain passing grades. If a student wants to pursue an athletic scholarship in division one sports, they need to have at least 2.3 grade point average to be considered. That grade point average is not much but it is have increased over the years. EFFECT OF EXTRACURRICULAR ACTIVITIES 4 Researchers have found positive relations between extracurricular participation and academic success (Fujita, 2006). Many extracurricular activities have proven to be advantageous in building and strengthening a student’s academic attainment, even though the activities may not relate to academic subjects (Fujita, 2006). Students must study their music sheets or memorize their lines to a play or a dance routine. Whatever the instance, student’s minds are working to retain more knowledge. The more a person uses their brain, the stronger it becomes. Sports are one of the biggest extracurricular activities to have effects on students. The athletic programs reduce the dropout rate by 40 % (Massoni, 2011). There are laws that are for students in extracurricular activities. One of the popular laws is the No Pass No Play act which many states use. This law states that a student that is participating in extracurricular activities has to have a certain grade point average or cannot flunk more than one or two classes or they won’t be able to participate in the activity. Students may participate in the practices but when the performances or events occur, the student must sit out. This incentive encourages students to keep their grades up, which thwarts them from not failing or dropping out. A number of studies revealed that students who participate in extracurricular activities are more than likely to do better in school than students who didn’t participate (Fujita, 2006). One study found that adolescents who participated in extracurricular activities reported higher grades, more positive attitudes toward school, and higher academic aspirations (Fujita, 2006). It’s not to say that nonparticipants don’t have more or the same as participants, but there is an extra incentive for participants. Involvement in extracurricular activities has been associated with a number of adolescent outcomes. For instance, adolescents involved in school and community extracurricular activities reported more religiosity, academic commitment, and positive views from parents and peers than EFFECT OF EXTRACURRICULAR ACTIVITIES 5 those that are not involved (Hancock, Dyk, & Jones, 2012). Research found that adolescents who participated in band, orchestra, chorus, or in a school play were significantly less likely to engage in problem behaviors such as alcohol consumption or drug use (Hancock, Dyk, & Jones, 2012). Students have more on the line and risk by consuming alcohol or drugs, which deters them from using such substances. In another study, extracurricular participation was associated with higher than expected grades, a strong school value, more self-esteem, and resiliency to succeed (Hancock, Dyk, & Jones, 2012). In Grapevine-Colleyville ISD, the proposed budget for Cocurricular/Extracurricular activities in the 2014-2015 school year is $3,317,603 (Grapevine-Colleyville ISD Budget, 2014). That is an increase from the previous year’s amended budget of $3,051,276 for Cocurricular/Extracurricular activities (Grapevine-Colleyville ISD Budget, 2014). The total expenditures for the 2014-2015 proposed budget is $145,040,809 (Grapevine-Colleyville ISD Budget, 2014). The $3 million is around 2.2% of the total budget which some of that cocurricular/extracurricular budget can be made back through the events that occur. Current Study and Hypothesis Participation in extracurricular activities is a daily part of every school. There are more positives than negatives for students to participate in extracurricular activities. The purpose of this study is to determine whether or not the activities that high school students choose have an effect on their academic performance: (1) Do the co-curricular activities influence the academic performance of high school students? (2) How is the academic performance influenced by specific activities? Method EFFECT OF EXTRACURRICULAR ACTIVITIES 6 Participant The proposed research study will examine high school students from grades ninth to twelfth in two different districts; one district will be located in a rural community and the other district will be located in an urban setting. I will receive permission by each district’s Superintendents office and then by each building principal. Lastly, I will need the approval of each district’s athletic and fine arts department. Measures I will need each school registrars to send me a complete list of students by name, grade level, gender, ethnicity, and cumulative unweighted GPA. Next I will need a list from the athletic and fine arts departments of all participants as well as a list from the building principals of school activities participants. With the data collected, I will investigate the following questions: (1) What is a difference in the GPA between participants and non-participants in extracurricular activities?, (2) Is GPA between participants and non-participants affected by gender?, (3) Is GPA between participants and non-participants affected by ethnicity?, (4) Is there a difference in the GPA between participation in athletics and nonparticipants in athletics?, (5) What is the GPA mean difference between the two districts? Design and Procedure This case study will use quantitative research methods because basic information and behavior were observed. A descriptive research method will be used to identify the differences in GPA of extracurricular participants and non-participants in high school students in the two EFFECT OF EXTRACURRICULAR ACTIVITIES 7 school districts. This research aims to provide a clear, accurate description of individuals, activities and their effect. The collection of data will focus on each participant’s cumulative unweighted GPA. The information will be paired with rosters for each extracurricular activity to identify participants and nonparticipants. The data from both high schools will be combined into an Excel spreadsheet. The titles for all activities will be listed alphabetically, horizontally across the spreadsheet; one per cell. To input the data, a 0 or 1 will be placed in each category. A 0 will mean a student did not participate, while a 1 will indicate participation. If a student participates in an activity, a 1 will be placed next to their name in that activity column. If a student does not participate in an activity, a 0 will be placed next to their name in that activity column. Data Analysis The data will be collected and organized in an Excel spreadsheet and a statistics software program. The GPA mean scores and standard deviations will be calculated for the extracurricular activity participants and non-participants as well as the different districts. The data will be analyzed using quantitative methods and all data will be kept confidential as all the student names would be deleted after the database is organized. Each school’s personal data based on the results will be given to each school for their own use. EFFECT OF EXTRACURRICULAR ACTIVITIES 8 References Fukita, K. (2006). The Effects of Extracurricular Activities on the Academic. Retrieved from THe Kappa Omicron Nu Undergraduate Research Community: www.kon.org/urc/v5/fujita.html Grapevine-Colleyville ISD Budget. (2014, October 2015). Retrieved from Grapevine-Colleyville ISD: http://www.gcisd-k12.org/Page/21796 Hancock, D., Dyk, P. H., & Jones, K. (2012). Adolescent Involvement in Extracurricular Activities. Journal of Leadership Education, 84-101. Holloway, J. H. (2000, January). Research Link / Extracurricular Activities: The Path to Academic Success? Retrieved from ASCD: http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/dec99/vol57/num04/[email protected]%C2%A2.aspx Massoni, E. (2011). Positive Effects of Extra Curricular Activities on Students. ESSAI, 84-86.